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101 Antiaircraft Artillery Group 1
101 Luchtdoelartilleriegroep (101 Luagp)

Operational Role | The Introduction of the Stinger, 1985-1987


45 Afdltlua125 Afdltlua115 Afdltlua43 Paluabt11 PaluabtStstbt 15 Afdpalua12 Paluabt51 Paluabt35 Afdpalua25 AfdpaluaStstbt 25 Afdpalua52 Paluabt13 Paluabt15 Afdpalua42 Paluabt53 PaluabtStstbt 35 Afdpalua41 PaluabtStstbt 101 luagp101 Luagp

Unit Main Equipment Location Peace Strength War Strength
Staff and Staff Battery
101 Anticaircraft Artillery Group
                  Stroe 8/10/23 (41)
19/28/107 (154)
 
15 Armoured Anticaircraft Artillery Battalion [a]
Staff and Staff Battery 15 Armoured Anticaircraft Artillery Battalion                   't Harde 10/14/47 (71) 10/15/67/2 (94)
12 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [b] PRTL, Stinger 't Harde 7/27/82 (116) 10/42/133 (185)
41 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [c] PRTL, Stinger  Langemannshof (GE) 9/33/104 (146) 10/42/133 (185)
43 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [d] PRTL, Stinger 't Harde 7/27/82 (116) 10/42/133 (185)
 
25 Armoured Anticaircraft Artillery Battalion [e]
Staff and Staff Battery 25 Armoured Anticaircraft Artillery Battalion                   Ede 10/14/47 (71) 10/15/67/2 (94)
11 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [f] PRTL, Stinger Ede 7/27/82 (116) 10/42/133 (185)
13 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [g] PRTL, Stinger Oirschot 7/27/82 (116) 10/42/133 (185)
42 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [h] PRTL, Stinger Ede 7/27/82 (116) 10/42/133 (185)
 
35 Armoured Anticaircraft Artillery Battalion [i]
Staff and Staff Battery 35 Armoured Anticaircraft Artillery Battalion [j]                   10/15/67/2 (94)
51 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [k] PRTL, (Stinger) 10/42/133 (185)
52 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [l] PRTL, (Stinger) 10/42/133 (185)
53 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery [m] PRTL, (Stinger) 10/42/133 (185)
 
45 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion [n] Bofors 40L70 42/88/449/2 (581)
115 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion [n] Bofors 40L70 42/88/449/2 (581)
125 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion [n] Bofors 40L70 42/88/449/2 (581)

101 Antiaircraft Artillery Group Peace Strength: 63/173/527 (763)
101 Antiaircraft Artillery Group War Strength: 265/715/2852/12 (3844)

Notes

a. Likely to be assigned to 4 Division in wartime.2
b. Became operational with Stinger in 1985-1986, as follows: first platoon in May 1985, second platoon in November 1985, third platoon in March 1986.3 
c. Wartime organisation; under command of 41 Armoured Brigade in peacetime. Became operational with Stinger in 1985, as follows: first platoon in July, second platoon in September, third platoon in November.3 
d. Became operational with Stinger in 1985-1986, as follows: first platoon in February 1985, second platoon in September 1985, third platoon in January 1986.3 
e. Likely to be assigned to 1 Division "7 December" in wartime.4
f. Became operational with Stinger in 1985-1986, as follows: first platoon in March 1985, second platoon in November 1985, third platoon in January 1986.3 
g. Became operational with Stinger in 1985-1986, as follows: first platoon in March 1985, second platoon in July 1985, third platoon in January 1986.3 
h. Became operational with Stinger in 1985-1986, as follows: first platoon in May 1985, second platoon in November 1985, third platoon in March 1986.3 
i. Likely to be assigned to 5 Division in wartime.
j. RIM battery, filled by mobilisable personnel that had fulfilled their active-duty period in Staff and Staff Battery, 15 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion between four and twenty months prior to mobilisation.5 12 
k. RIM battery, filled by mobilisable platoons that had fulfilled their active-duty period in 12 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery between four and twenty months prior to mobilisation.5 12 Became operational with Stinger in 1986-1987, as follows: first platoon in September 1986, second platoon in January 1987, third platoon in July 1987.3 5
l. RIM battery, filled by mobilisable platoons that had fulfilled their active-duty period in 41 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery up to twenty months prior to mobilisation.5 6 12 Became operational with Stinger in 1986, as follows: first platoon in May, second platoon in July, third platoon in September.3 5
m. RIM battery, filled by mobilisable platoons that had fulfilled their active-duty period in 43 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery between four and twenty months prior to mobilisation.5 12 Became operational with Stinger in 1986-1987, as follows: first platoon in July 1986, second platoon in November 1986, third platoon in May 1987.3 5
n. The last two active units of this type, 15 and 25 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, had been disbanded in 1983 because of the high exploitation costs and degrading performance of the obsolescent main equipment.7 45, 115 and 125 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion were filled by personnel from the general pool of mobilisable reserves (vrij-indeelbaar bestand) that had fulfilled their active-duty period in relevant functions up to eight and a half years prior to mobilisation, most likely in the two disbanded battalions.5 

Operational Role

101 Antiaircraft Artillery Group formed the ground-based air defence component of 1 (NL) Corps. Its nine armoured antiaircraft artillery batteries, organised into three battalions (15, 25 and 35 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion), were deployable throughout the corps sector, including the Corps Rear Area.8 In wartime 15 and 25 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion would likely each be placed under operational command of one of the two first-line divisions (4 and 1 Division respectively) whilst 35 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion would probably operate in the Corps Rear Area. The battalion commanders would detach batteries or platoons as needed.9 The three light battalions (45, 115 and 145 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion) meanwhile were to protect the Weser bridges and other static objects of importance in the Corps Rear Area.10 <

The Introduction of the Stinger, 1985-1987

As specified in the notes above the FIM-92 Stinger man-portable air defence system entered service with all armoured antiaircraft batteries between 1985 and 1987. In 1985 all active-duty batteries were in the process of forming Stinger teams, concurrently adopting a new organisation type; the old battery organisation, still retained by 51, 52 and 53 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery in 1985, is described in detail hereIn case of mobilisation those batteries and platoons not yet trained and equipped with Stinger would probably have received some sort of crash course in the use of the weapon.11 <

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1. In peacetime under command of Commander, 1 (NL) Corps Artillery.
2. Felius, Einde Oefening, 161.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, Planningsmemorandum Invoering Stinger Basic d.d. 30 september 1983, 27. Given the date of this planning document the dates given here may not be completely accurate for 1985; I have however found no indications of substantial delays in the introduction of the Stinger. See HTK 1985-1986, kamerstuknr. 19200 X ondernr. 2, 27; HTK 1986-1987, kamerstuknr. 19700 X ondernr. 7, 2; Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, Luchtdoelartillerie200, 202, 211; Van Randwijk, Legerkorpsluchtverdediging, 2295; Janssen Lok, De Stinger, 16. Regarding the reliability of the official Royal Army order of battle in this respect, see Unit Organisation and Equipment, The Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery, footnote 8.
4. Schulten, Zwitzer en Hoffenaar, 1 Divisie, 153.
5. NIMH 205A/10, Aflossing van mobilisabele eenheden en -aanvullingen d.d. 11 november 1983. Ibid., d.d. 17 juni 1985.
6. As 41 Antiaircraft Artillery Battery had no antiaircraft artillery platoon on Short Leave, the conscript personnel of its three antiaircraft artillery platoons would skip the usual four to six-month Short Leave period and pass straight into 52 Antiaircraft Artillery Battery (RIM) on completion of their active-duty period. The Short Leave period was added to the fourteen to sixteen-month RIM period, thus expanding the latter to up to twenty monhs. 
7. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 502, op. cit., Deel II. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 399. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 205. Also disbanded in 1983 was the mobilisable 105 Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 502, loc. cit. Hoksbergen en Kroon, op. cit., 76. The disbandment of the three battalions created the financial space needed to buy the Stinger. HTK 1981-1982, kamerstuknr. 17100 X ondernr. 50, 3. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, loc. cit. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, loc. cit. For an outline of later developments see Unit Organisation and Equipment, The Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
8. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, Met de blik, 399. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 207. Previously each of the nine armoured antiaircraft artillery batteries had been part of the armoured (infantry) brigade of the same number. Hoksbergen en Kroon, Nederlandse Artillerie, 75. The armoured antiaircraft artillery had been concentrated at corps level out of necessity in 1983-1984, to compensate for the disbandment of three out of six light antiaircraft artillery battalions (see note n and footnote 7). The introduction of the Stinger and the Stinger Post (the latter scheduled for 1989 but later deferred to 1991) were seen as the first steps to improve 1 (NL) Corps' ground-based air defence. It was recognised meanwhile that an operational risk would exist for several years: the armoured antiaircraft artillery would likely be required to operate thinly dispersed. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 502, Memorandum Reorganisatie Luchtverdediging d.d. 14 juli 1982, 26. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 399-402.
9. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 502, loc. cit. Hoksbergen en Kroon, op. cit., 76. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 207-208. 
10. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 399. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 197.
11. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, op. cit, 8. This planning document notes the possibility to crash-course the PRTL-trained personnel in about twenty instruction hours. Whether actual preparations for this were made is at present unknown to me. The weapons would have been available: according to the 1983 planning all 486 Stingers ordered for the Royal Army (324 x Stinger Basic Weapon Round and 162 x Stinger Basic Missile Round) were delivered by January 1985. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, op. cit., 29.
12. RIM was the Dutch acronym for Direct Influx into Mobilisable Units (Rechtstreekse Instroming in Mobilisabele Eenheden). For a survey of the Royal Army's unit filling and reserve system see Gijsbers, Blik in de smidse, 2222-2231; Selles, Personele vulling; Berghuijs, Opleiding, 14-23. In English: Isby and Kamps, Armies, 341-343; Sorell, Je Maintiendrai: The Royal Netherlands Army within the Alliance, 94-96; Van Vuren, The Royal Netherlands Army TodayMilitary Review April 1982, 23-28.