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Unit Organisation and Equipment


MARINE CORPS • KORPS MARINIERS

 
Amphibious Section
 
Whiskey Infantry Company
 
1 Amphibious Combat Group
 
2 Amphibious Combat Group
 
3 Amphibious Combat Group
   
The Logistic Support Group
   
Boat Company Group
   
Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit /
Navy Patrols Division Netherlands

   
Navy Patrol Company Netherlands
   
The Security Detachment


ROYAL ARMY • KONINKLIJKE LANDMACHT

 
Command

The Brigade Staff and Staff Company

Reconnaissance

104 Observation and Reconnaissance Company
 
The Reconnaissance Battalion
 
53 Light Reconnaissance Battalion
 
The Brigade Reconnaissance Platoon
 
The Reconnaissance Platoon of the Tank/
Armoured Infantry Battalion


Armour

The Tank Battalion of the Armoured Brigade
 
The Tank Battalion of the Armoured Infantry Brigade

The Tank Battalion (old organisation)

Infantry

The Armoured Infantry Battalion YPR-765
 
The Armoured Infantry Battalion YP-408
   
The Armoured Antitank Company
   
The Infantry Battalion of the Infantry Brigade
     
 
The Territorial Security Infantry Battalion

425 and 434 Mobile Security Infantry Company
 
436 and 437 Mobile Security Infantry Company
   
The Territorial Mobile Security Infantry Company
   
The Territorial Light Security Infantry Company
   
The Territorial Heavy Security Infantry Company
   
The Territorial Security Infantry Company
 
The National Reserve Company Staff
   
The National Reserve Platoon

Antiaircraft

 
The Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery
 
The Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery (old organisation)
 
The Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion

Artillery


The Field/Horse Artillery Battalion M109A2/A3

The Field Artillery Battalion M110A2 / M107

The Field Artillery Battalion M114A1

19 Field Artillery Battalion, Nuclear Deployed

129 Field Artillery Battalion, Nuclear Deployed

101 Artillery Survey Battalion

Engineers

The Armoured Engineer Company

The Engineer Battalion

The Diver Platoon

901 Torpedo Company


Logistics

The Brigade Supply Company

The Brigade Repair Company

The Brigade Medical Company

Combined-Arms Formations
 
Mixed Battalions and Company Teams

Armament and Vehicles


Personal armament comprised the FN FAL self-loading selective-fire battle rifle 7.62 mm, the UZI submachine gun 9 mm and the FN Browning Hi-Power pistol 9 mm. The FAL was the standard infantry weapon, whilst the UZI was widely used by vehicle crews and other personnel for whom the size of the FAL would be cumbersome. Personal armament is, in general, mentioned only where the situation differs from the usual pattern or is otherwise noteworthy.

Unit equipment is not listed exhaustively; communications gear for instance is not mentioned
in most cases. Due to lack of data only weapons and vehicles inherent to a (sub)unit's role are mentioned in many other cases. Regarding armament, in 1978-1979 the inventory of an M109-equipped field artillery battalion for example included, apart from what is given below, 10 x M2 hmg .50 inch (of which one mounted on an M578 recovery vehicle) and 12 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm.1 It should also be noted that most unit types on this page probably had a number of M72 LAWs 66 mm in their inventory; here they are only mentioned when actual record of them was found.2

Several sections however, such as 1 Amphibious Combat Group, The Armoured Infantry Battalion YPR-765, The Territorial Security Infantry Battalion and 53 Light Reconnaissance Battalion, provide a complete overview of armament and vehicles.

Abbreviations used to indicate weapon types:

atgm - antitank guided missile
gpmg - general purpose machine gun
hmg - heavy machine gun
LAW - light antitank weapon
lmg - light machine gun
mmg - medium machine gun
rclr - recoilless rifle
sam - surface to air missile
saw - squad automatic weapon

Unit Personnel Strengths

All unit strengths given are wartime strengths. In the Royal Army these
sometimes differed slightly between units of the same basic type, for example between active-duty and mobilisable variants of a unit type, or because of minor differences in equipment. Officially all such variants were different unit types and had different organisation type numbers. The unit strengths given on this page are the most common or representative variants, for actual unit strengths refer to the order of battle pages.

Short Leave

In peacetime nearly all of the Royal Army's active-duty battalions (and quite a few units of company or even platoon size) had one or more subunits on Short Leave at any given time. These are marked as mobilisable in the organisational charts below.3 Short Leave elements were mobilisable within twenty-four hours, recallable by the Minister of Defence without parliamentary consent.4

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1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 242, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) afdelingen veldartillerie M109, 1978-1979.
2. LAWs were categorised as ammunition rather than as armament, hence information on their presence is not always (readily) available.
3. For the sake of clarity the subunit marked as being on Short Leave is always the one last in line (e.g. C Company). In reality things were not that straightforward; in most armoured infantry battalions for instance the Short Leave status rotated from A to B to C Company, whilst in most cavalry battalions the Short Leave squadron was always C Squadron. SSA-MvD, 7486, ONDAS-ritmen 1984-1988 d.d. 20 augustus 1984. The Short Leave or mobilisable status of subunits below company level is only indicated as far as known. 
4. Military service officially lasted 24 months, but of these only 14 months were actually served (16 months for reserve officers and conscript sub-officers). The following four to six months the company, squadron, battery or platoon in question was on Short Leave, during which its conscript personnel was still on active duty in legal terms, and part of their unit in military terms. For an survey of the Army's unit filling and reserve system see Gijsbers, Blik in de smidse, 2222-2231; Selles, Personele vulling; Berghuijs, Opleiding, 14-23. In English: Isby and Kamps, Armies, 341-343; Sorell, Je Maintiendrai: The Royal Netherlands Army within the Alliance, 94-96; Van Vuren, The Royal Netherlands Army Today, Military Review April 1982, 23-28.

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MARINE CORPS • KORPS MARINIERS

Amphibious Section 1
Amfibische Sectie (AMFSIE)



AMFSIESIESTAF3e AMFGP2e AMFGP1e AMFGP

One section staff and three amphibious groups (1-2-3). The amphibious groups would usually operate in two-men teams. 
 
Staff section strength: 2/2/3 (7). Amphibious group strength: –/2/4 (6). Amphibious section strength: 2/8/15 (25).
 
The Amphibious Section of the Marine Corps was an elite unit specialised in amphibious reconnaissance, sabotage actions and maritime counterterrorism operations. Personnel were trained as frogmen, commandos and parachutists. The amphibious groups and teams would typically operate in enemy territory, isolated from friendly forces. They would deploy to their debarkation area by ship, boat, submarine, aeroplane, helicopter, or by parachute. From there they would advance on their objective(s) by Landing Craft Rubber (LCR), Landing Craft Rubber Motorised (LCRM), kayak, or swimming. Possible missions included beach reconnaissance, clearing obstacles both under and above water, diving missions, sabotage actions both under and above water, infiltration and exfiltration of enemy territory, hinterland reconnaissance (up to twenty-five kilometres inland), and establishing and operating observation posts. The three amphibious groups were able to operate independently.
 
The 1st Amphibious Group was trained for temperate climate operations, and would be attached to 2 Amphibious Combat Group if that unit would be deployed with the United Kingdom/Netherlands Landing Force (UK/NL LF) in non-arctic regions; it also handled the training of frogmen and frogmen instructors, as well as anti-frogman and anti-sabotage training for ships' crews. The 2nd Amphibious Group was specialised in maritime counterterrorism operations, notably concerning offshore oil and gas installations in the North Sea, and could be attached to the Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit (BBE-M); it was also available for general assignments. The 3rd Amphibious Group was arctic-trained and integrated in the Special Boat Squadron (SBS) of the British Royal Marines (RM) as 7 (NL) Special Boat Section (7 (NL) SBS); it was earmarked to be attached to 1 Amphibious Combat Group for deployment to (northern) Norway with UK/NL LF.
 
Personal armament included UZI submachine guns and combat knives. As the Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit had a number of Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine guns 9 mm in addition to their complement of UZIs, this may have been the case with the Amphibious Section as well.2

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1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6081, BL 4301 - 1AGGP d.d. 23 maart 1983 - 15 september 1983, voetnoten. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6085, BL 4215 - AMFSIE d.d. 10 november 1982 - 6 juli 1983. Ibid., inv. nr. 2498, VVKM 412 Voorschrift betreffende de organisatie, de uitrusting en de tactiek van de amfibische sectie d.d. 18 oktober 1979. NL-HaNA 2.13.112, inv. nr. 144, BL 4310 - 2AGGP d.d. 23 augustus 1983, voetnoten. MM, Uitrustingstabellen Korps Mariniers d.d. 4 mei 1977, 36.  Van Dijk en Essink, De mariniers, 193-194, 197. Teitler en Homan, Het Korps Mariniers, 53.
2. Pictures from 1990 show frogmen of the Amphibious Section with Heckler & Koch HK33 assault rifles 5.56 mm. Haring, Mariniers 325 jaar, 131-133. In 1983 the two medics in the section staff had a pistol (probably the standard FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm) rather than an UZI as their personal weapon.

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Whiskey Infantry Company 1
Whiskey Infanteriecompagnie (WINFCIE)


COGP3e GEWGP2e GEWGP1e GEWGPWINFCIECIESTAF3e INFPEL2e INFPEL1e INFPEL

Organised and equipped identically to an infantry company of 1 Amphibious Combat Group; in addition the Carl Gustav team of the command group of each infantry platoon had 1 x M47 Dragon atgm system.2 In 1984 the company had 5 x ½-tonne Land Rover, probably with ¼-tonne trailer, and 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover ambulance.3 For operations in northern Norway the company had 3 x Volvo Bv 202 tracked over-snow vehicle and various arctic equipment, including skis. The Bv 202's were prepositioned in Kilbotn, Norway.4
 
Company staff strength: 2/3/9 (14). Infantry platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Infantry platoon command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: –/1/8 (9). Company strength: 5/15/96 (116).
 
The company was specialised in mountain and arctic warfare. In principle the entire unit was para-trained. It was considered "probably one of the most expert NATO arctic warfare units [...] equal to the best RM units in this type of warfare". During training periods and exercises Whiskey Infantry Company was fully integrated into 45 (UK) Commando RM, forming this unit's fourth rifle company, and it was earmarked to be deployed as such to northern Norway in wartime as part of the United Kingdom/Netherlands Landing Force (UK/NL LF). Whiskey Infantry Company was attached to 45 (UK) Commando RM for the larger part of the year, and about three months a year were spent on joint exercises.5

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1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6080, BL 4320 - WINFCIE d.d. 27 oktober 1982 - 29 december 1982.
2. Ibid. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 2504, VVKM 414 Voorschrift betreffende de organisatie, de uitrusting, de training en de tactiek van het antitankpeloton d.d. 18 augustus 1982, 2-1.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 979, Landrovers d.d. 26 maart 1984. This document only lists Land Rovers; the company may in addition have had a four-tonne truck for logistic support. To compare, the rifle company of a (UK) Royal Marines commando, after which the organisation of Whiskey Infantry Company was modeled, had 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover, probably with trailer, and 1 x four-tonne truck. British Army, SOHB 1985, 39. Ibid., SOHB 1988, 42.
4. 3 x Bv 202: NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 804, Oversnow-vehicle BV 202 d.d. 3 oktober 1980. Prepositioned in Norway: see 1 Amphibious Combat Group, footnote 11.
5. See Marine Corps, footnote 3. RM: (UK) Royal Marines.

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1 Amphibious Combat Group 1
Eerste Amfibische Gevechtsgroep (1AGGP)


1LOGOSTGRPMRGP (2x)INFPNGP (3x)VERKGP (2x)CIESTAFCOGPATGP (3x)COGPMPSIETPELVZGPELVBPEL10 STVZGCIEADMINCIEGNKSIEGEVGPSTAF1AGGPCOGPVERKPELATPELCOGPCOGPVERKSIE (3x)ATSIE (3x)COGPTLSIEINFPNSIECOGPMRPELMRSIE (3x)TLGP (4x)CIESTAFCIESTAF15 OSTCIE13 INFCIE14 INFCIE11 INFCIE3e INFPEL12 INFCIEATPLG (2x)2e GEWGPCOGP3e GEWGP1e GEWGP2e INFPEL1e INFPEL

One staff and support company (10), four infantry companies (11-12-13-14) (of which 14 Infantry Company on mobilisation 2), and one combat support company (15). On mobilisation a company-sized logistic support group (1) would probably be attached.3 ¶ The staff and support company comprised the combat group staff, a signals platoon, an administration section, a service support platoon, a transport platoon, a medical section, a navy patrol section, and the company staff.4 The company staff had 2 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm. ¶ The four infantry companies each comprised a company staff and three infantry platoons (1-2-3). Each infantry platoon comprised a command group and three rifle groups (1-2-3). The command group had 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm and 1 x mortar 60 mm; the Carl Gustav team (gunner and helper) were double-roled as sharpshooters.5 Each rifle group had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, 2 x FN FALO saw 7.62 mm, 6 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm and 1 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm. A rifle group could thus operate in three fire teams formed around the FN MAG and the two FALOs. ¶ The combat support company comprised a company staff, a reconnaissance platoon, an antitank platoon, an antiaircraft section, a mortar platoon and an infantry pioneer section. The reconnaissance platoon comprised a command group and three reconnaissance sections, each section comprising two reconnaissance groups. The platoon was fully motorised and had probably 8 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 2 x ¼-tonne trailer, and 8 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm.6 Possible missions included tactical and technical reconnaissance, long range reconnaissance, infiltration and exfiltration of enemy territory, establishing and operating observation posts, sabotage actions, and securing objects or areas; personnel was partly commando and/or para-trained. The reconnaissance sections were able to operate independently. The antitank platoon comprised a command group and three antitank sections, each section comprising a command group and three antitank groups, each antitank group comprising two antitank teams with 1 x M47 Dragon atgm system each. In addition the command group of each antitank section held 1 x M47 Dragon in reserve. The platoon carried a basic load of one hundred and eight M222 Dragon missiles, distributed as follows: eighteen with each antitank section (first line), six with each antitank section commander (first supplement), and thirty-six with the platoon command group (secondary supplement). The platoon was fully motorised and had 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 12 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck. The antiaircraft section comprised a command group and four antiaircraft groups. Each antiaircraft group had 1 x FIM-92 Stinger man-portable air defence system. In addition the command group held 1 x FIM-92 Stinger in reserve.6 The section carried a basic load of thirty missiles, distributed as follows: six missiles with each antiaircraft group (first line), and six missiles with the command group (first supplement). The section was fully motorised with 5 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, each with a ½-tonne trailer. The mortar platoon comprised a command group and three mortar sections, each mortar section comprising a command group and two mortar groups. Each mortar group had 1 x Hotchkiss Brandt mortar 81 mm. The platoon was fully motorised with 11 x ½-tonne Land Rover, each with a ¼-tonne trailer, and probably 1 x YA-4440 carrying ammunition.8 The infantry pioneer section comprised a command group and three infantry pioneer groups. The section was capable of light combat engineering and was fully motorised: each infantry pioneer group had a Land Rover with trailer whilst the command group probably had 1 x Land Rover (possibly with trailer) and 1 x YA-4440.8 It appears that personnel from the infantry pioneer groups also operated the combat group's three ZB 298 battlefield surveillance radars. || The amphibious combat group further had a number of M72 LAWs 66 mm.
 
Staff and support company strength: 19/43/130 (192).3 Combat group staff strength: 10/6/9 (25). Signals platoon strength: 1/5/14 (20). Administration section strength: 1/2/6 (9). Service support platoon strength: 1/11/35 (47). Transport platoon strength: 2/8/35 (45). Medical section strength: 2/4/14 (20). Navy patrol section strength: –/2/6 (8). Staff and support company staff strength: 2/5/11 (18). Infantry company strength: 5/15/96 (116). Infantry company staff strength: 2/3/9 (14). Infantry platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Infantry platoon command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: –/1/8 (9). Combat support company strength: 5/51/102 (158). Combat support company staff strength: 2/4/7 (13). Reconnaissance platoon strength: 1/5/18 (24). Reconnaissance platoon command group strength: 1/2/3 (6). Reconnaissance section strength: –/2/4 (6). Reconnaissance group strength: –/1/2 (3) or –/–/3 (3). Antitank platoon strength: 1/14/31 (46). Antitank platoon command group strength: 1/2/1 (4). Antitank section strength: –/4/10 (14). Antitank section command group strength: –/1/1 (2). Antitank group strength: –/1/3 (4). Antitank team strength: –/1/1 (2) and –/–/2 (2). Antiaircraft section strength: –/5/10 (15). Antiaircraft command group strength: 1/–/2 (3). Antiaircraft group strength: –/1/2 (3). Mortar platoon strength: 1/18/25 (44). Mortar platoon command group strength: 1/3/4 (8). Mortar section strength: –/5/7 (12). Mortar section command group strength: –/3/1 (4). Mortar group strength: –/1/3 (4). Infantry pioneer section strength: –/5/11 (16). Infantry pioneer command group strength: –/2/2 (4). Infantry pioneer group strength: –/1/3 (4). 1 Amphibious Combat Group strength without 1 Logistic Support Group: 44/154/616 (814). 1 Amphibious Combat Group strength including 1 Logistic Support Group: 47/161/708 (916).
   
In 1981 the inventory of 1 Amphibious Combat Group, including 1 Logistic Support Group, included: 290 x FN FAL 
battle rifle 7.62 mm, 72 x FALO saw 7.62 mm, 63 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, thirty-two sharpshooter rifles (probably FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm with scope, see footnote 5), 378 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, 176 x FN Browning Hi-Power pistol 9 mm, thirty flare pistols (probably Geco 26,5 mm), 21 x M47 Dragon atgm system, 21 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm, 5 x FIM-92 Stinger man-portable air defence system, 16 x mortar 60 mm, 6 x Hotchkiss Brandt mortar 81 mm, 46 x ½-tonne Land Rover with 36 x ¼ tonne trailer, 23 x ¾-tonne Land Rover with 8 x ¼-tonne trailer, 3 x ¾-tonne Land Rover ambulance, 40 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck, one tow truck, one 2-tonne fork lift truck, 5 x trailer (field kitchen), 1 x trailer (repair), 6 x one-tonne trailer (water), twelve shelter/container modules for YA-4440, two motorcycles, 3 x ZB 298 battlefield surveillance radar, one hundred and forty-one radios, six hundred and seventy-nine flak jackets, and various arctic equipment (including skis). For operations in northern Norway 1 Amphibious Combat Group had 57 x Volvo Bv 202 tracked over-snow vehicle.9 These could be used to carry equipment (main role), personnel, and for skijoring, thus providing (limited) motorised mobility under arctic circumstances. Possible deployment of Bv 202s during operations: 10-12 x with 10 Staff and Support Company, 15-20 x with the infantry companies, 22 x with 15 Combat Support Company (1 x with the reconnaissance platoon, 7 x with the antitank platoon, 3 x with the antiaircraft section, 8 x with the mortar platoon, 3 x with the infantry pioneer section), and 8-10 x for first line logistic support.10 Nearly all Bv 202s were prepositioned in Kilbotn, Norway.11
 
1 Amphibious Combat Group was one of the three amphibious light infantry battalions of the Marine Corps. This unit type was characterised as "quickly displaceable, lightly armed and mentally adjusted to limited-scale operations and operations in isolated situations".12 To enable full interoperability, organisation and equipment were closely modeled on those of the (UK) Royal Marine commandos. 1 Amphibious Combat Group was trained in mountain and arctic warfare, and earmarked for wartime deployment to northern Norway as part of the United Kingdom/Netherlands Landing Force (UK/NL LF)
under Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT). When deployed as such, or as needed, elements of the Amphibious Section and the Boat Company Group would be attached.13

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1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6081, BL 4301 - 1AGGP d.d. 23 maart 1983 - 15 september 1983. Ibid., inv. nr. 2506, VVKM 407 Voorschrift betreffende de amfibische gevechtsgroep d.d. 23 november 1982. Ibid., inv. nr. 736, VVKM 408 Voorschrift betreffende de tactiek van het verkenningspeloton d.d. 20 januari 1978. Ibid., inv. nr. 2504, VVKM 414 Voorschrift betreffende de organisatie, de uitrusting, de training en de tactiek van het antitankpeloton d.d. 18 augustus 1982. Ibid., inv. nr. 750, VVKM 410 Voorschrift betreffende de organisatie, de uitrusting, de training en de tactiek van het mortierpeloton d.d. 29 april 1981. NL-HaNA 2.13.112, inv. nr. 144, BL 4310 - 2AGGP d.d. 22 augustus 1983. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, voorlopige studie "Reorganisatie mobilisabel personeel Korps Mariniers" d.d. 13 februari 1981. Anonymus, Beslissing genomen, 5-8. Cammaert, Enkele kanttekeningen, 30-36.
2. On mobilisation 14 Infantry Company would for the most part be formed from surplus personnel (bovenrol) at the Royal Naval Institute (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, KIM) in Den Helder, Van Braam Houckgeest Barracks in Doorn and, predominantly, Van Ghent Barracks in Rotterdam; in addition twenty-four reservists would be called up. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6081, op. cit., 40-47, 54. During operations the company could either be used as an additional manoeuvre element or serve as battle casualty replacement pool with its remainder providing security for 10 Staff and Support Company. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 562, Oversnow mobility concept 1 ACG d.d. 5 juli 1982, 4.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, NDPP Concept krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1984-1993 d.d. maart 1983, 74. See also the documents listed under The Logistic Support Group, footnote 1 ("CDT. ROL"). A document from 1981, NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, op cit., shows 1 and 2 Logistic Support Group as integral parts of 1 and 2 Amphibious Combat Group respectively, but documents from 1982-1983 on the organisation of the amphibious combat group (see footnote 1) do not. However, on mobilisation 1 and 2 Amphibious Combat group would be brought up to war strength "including" 1 and 2 Logistic Support Group respectively. NL-HaNA 2.12.56 inv. nr. 1876, VVKM 38.1 Mobilisatievoorschrift der Koninklijke Marine, deel 1: Personeel, Bijlage 5 d.d. 26 oktober 1983. During operations with the United Kingdom/Netherlands Landing Force (UK/NL LF) the logistic echelon of 1 Amphibious Combat Group would be integrated into the (UK) Commando Logistic Regiment RM. NL-HaNa 2.12.56, inv. nr. 3413, Proposed final draft of Annex B to the Memorandum of Understanding dated 9 may 1973 between the Netherlands Ministry of Defence and the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence d.d. 20 June 1975. See also Haring, Mariniers 325 jaar, 32. This echelon would include elements of 10 Staff and Support Company. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 2506, op. cit., 1-3. It seems likely that (elements of) 1 Logistic Support Group would likewise be integrated into (UK) Commando Logistic Regiment RM, but I have not found record of this.
4. As can be gathered from footnote 1, the source material for this section predominantly dates from 1982-1983. It seems likely that the minor changes made to 20 Staff and Support Company, 2 Amphibious Combat Group between 1983 and 1984 would have applied to 10 Staff and Support Company as well. If so, then in 1985 both 10 and 20 Staff and Support Company were composed as follows: the combat group staff (39 men, an increase of 14 men), a signals platoon (20 men), an administration section (6 men, a decrease of 3 men), a service support platoon (51 men, an increase of 4 men), a transport platoon (45 men), a medical section (20 men), and the company staff (18 men); the navy patrol section was disbanded. This increased the strength of the staff and support company from 192 to 199 men, bringing the total strength of the amphibious combat group from 814 to 821 men (logistic support group not included). NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 772, Reorganisatie opleidingen en 2AGGP d.d. 2 juli 1984., Bijlage B. See also Marine Corps, footnote 5.
5. About this combination of functions Captain P.C. Cammaert, today Major-General (Rtd.), commented: "A curious construction, to put it mildly." Cammaert, op. cit., 35. See also Van Willigenburg, Reactie, 8-9. The Marine Corps did not have dedicated sharpshooter rifles. Cammaert, loc. cit. Most likely FN FAL battle rifles 7.62 mm with scopes were used (Kijker Richt Recht AI 62). This aid enabled long-distance precision shooting (up to 800 metres). Van der Spek, Een wapen, 97, 98.
6. The FIM-92 Stinger entered service with the Marine Corps in 1985. The antiaircraft section of 1 Amphibious Combat Group began training with the weapon in April of that year, from which point it was considered operational. Janssen Lok, De Stinger, 17. See also Teitler en Homan, Het Korps Mariniers, 51. For the Stinger in service with the Royal Army, see The Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion.
7. The number of Land Rovers and FN MAGs has been extrapolated from BL 4301 (1983) and VVKM 408 (1978) (see footnote 1); in 1978 the reconnaissance platoon had two rather than three reconnaissance sections.
8. DAF YA-4440 mentioned in Van Egmond, 15e Ondersteuningscompagnie, 8-16 (1991).
9. Equipment inventory: NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, op. cit., Bijvoegsel 1. These numbers seem to include spare weapons, for instance in case of the Carls Gustavs and the 60 mm mortars.
10. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 562, Oversnow mobility concept 1 ACG d.d. 5 juli 1982.
11. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 341, Opslag sneeuwvoertuigen van het Korps Mariniers te Noorwegen d.d. 21 januari 1980. Ibid., inv. nr. 804, Oversnow-vehicle BV 202 d.d. 3 oktober 1980. Jaarboek KM 1986, 156. Initially all sixty Bv 202s acquired by the Marine Corps were prepositioned in Norway, but in 1981 three vehicles were shipped to the Netherlands for training chauffeurs and mechanics. These vehicles remained under the control of 1 Amphibious Combat Group. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 804, BV202-opleidingen d.d. 30 maart 1981. In 1986 plans to move the prepositioned Bv 202s to a new NATO storage site in Rossvoll, Norway were underway. Jaarboek KM 1986, loc. cit.
12. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, op. cit., 7.
13. See Marine Corps, footnote 4. 

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2 Amphibious Combat Group 1
Tweede Amfibische Gevechtsgroep (2AGGP)


2LOGOSTGRPMRGP (2x)INFPNGP (3x)VERKGP (2x)CIESTAFCOGPATGP (3x)COGPMPSIETPELVZGPELVBPEL20 STVZGCIEADMINCIEGNKSIEGEVGPSTAF2AGGPCOGPVERKPELATPELCOGPCOGPVERKSIE (3x)ATSIE (3x)COGPTLSIEINFPNSIECOGPMRPELMRSIE (3x)TLGP (4x)2e INFPELCIESTAF25 OSTCIE22 INFCIE24 INFCIE1e INFPELCOGP21 INFCIEATPLG (2x)23 INFCIE2e GEWGPCIESTAF3e INFPEL3e GEWGP1e GEWGP

One staff and support company (20), four infantry companies (21-22-23-24) (of which 24 Infantry Company mobilisable), and one combat support company (25). On mobilisation a company-sized logistic support group (2) would probably be attached.2 Organised identically to 1 Amphibious Combat Group.3 In peacetime partly dispersed over naval bases and installations in the Netherlands and in the Netherlands Antilles (NA), and partly mobilisable. In Juli 1984 the situation was as follows. ¶ 20 Staff and Support Company: forty-five men stationed at Van Braam Houckgeest Barracks, Doorn; two men at Headquarters Marine Corps, Rotterdam; nine men at Van Ghent Barracks, Rotterdam; twenty-five men at Marine Barracks Savaneta, Aruba (NA); twenty-four men at Naval Base Parera, Curaçao (NA); and ninety-four men mobilisable. ¶ 21 Infantry Company: stationed at Naval Base Parera. ¶ 22 Infantry Company: stationed at Marine Barracks Savaneta. ¶ Company staff, 23 Infantry Company: one man stationed at Van Braam Houckgeest Barracks; one man at Van Ghent Barracks; two men at the Royal Naval Institute in Den Helder (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, KIM); and ten men mobilisable. 1st Platoon, 23 Infantry Company: one man stationed with Marine Detachment Den Helder, Division Willemsoord; and thirty-three men with Marine Detachment Den Helder, Division De Kooy. 2nd Platoon, 23 Infantry Company: stationed with the Marine Detachment at Naval Air Station Valkenburg. 3rd Platoon, 23 Infantry Company: one man stationed at Van Braam Houckgeest Barracks; one man at Van Ghent Barracks; and thirty-two men mobilisable. ¶ 24 Infantry Company: mobilisable. ¶ 25 Combat Support Company: twenty-one men stationed at Van Braam Houckgeest Barracks; sixty-seven men stationed with the Marine Detachment at Naval Air Station Valkenburg (constituting the larger parts of the antitank platoon, the antiaircraft section and the infantry pioneer section); thirty-seven men with Marine Detachment Den Helder, Division De Kooy (constituting the larger part of the mortar platoon); the reconnaissance platoon at Naval Base Parera; and nine men mobilisable.4 In peacetime the reconnaissance platoon had 3 x M47 Dragon atgm system.5
 
Equipped identically to
1 Amphibious Combat Group, with the following differences: one hundred and twenty-eight radios, of different types; no arctic equipment; and no over-snow vehicles.      
 
2 Amphibious Combat Group was one of the three amphibious light infantry battalions of the Marine Corps.
This unit type was characterised as "quickly displaceable, lightly armed and mentally adjusted to limited-scale operations and operations in isolated situations".6 To enable full interoperability, organisation and equipment were closely modeled on those of the (UK) Royal Marine commandos. For its national role regarding the territorial defence of the Netherlands Antilles 2 Amphibious Combat Group could be concentrated there; for its NATO role under Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) the unit would be concentrated in the Netherlands. This could only happen after 3 Amphibious Combat Group had been mobilised and deployed to the Antilles. 2 Amphibious Combat Group could be assigned to the United Kingdom/Netherlands Landing Force (UK/NL LF), but only for deployment in non-arctic regions. In such case, or as needed, elements of the Amphibious Section and the Boat Company Group would be attached.7

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.112, inv. nr. 144, BL 4310 - 2AGGP d.d. 23 augustus 1983. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, voorlopige studie "Reorganisatie mobilisabel personeel Korps Mariniers" d.d. 13 februari 1981. Ibid., inv. nr. 772, Reorganisatie opleidingen en 2AGGP d.d. 2 juli 1984, Bijlage B. 
2. See 1 Amphibious Combat Group, footnote 3.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 772, loc. cit. shows that by 1984 the strength and organisation of 20 Staff and Support Company had changed slightly; see 1 Amphibious Combat Group, footnote 4.
4. Peacetime locations: NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 772, loc. cit. 
5. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 2504, VVKM 414 Voorschrift betreffende de organisatie, de uitrusting, de training en de tactiek van het antitankpeloton d.d. 18 augustus 1982, 2-1.
6. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, op. cit., 9.
7. See Marine Corps, footnote 5. 

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3 Amphibious Combat Group 1
Derde Amfibische Gevechtsgroep (3AGGP)


3e INFPELCIESTAF2e INFPEL3AGGP (-)33 CIEGP32 CIEGP31 CIEGPCOGPOSTGPMRGPMRGPVZGGP1e INFPEL3e GEWGP2e GEWGP1e GEWGPCOGP

Three company groups (31-32-33), no staff and support company. ¶ Each company group comprised a company staff, three infantry platoons (1-2-3), a combat support group and a service support group. Each infantry platoon comprised a command group and three rifle groups (1-2-3). The command group had 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm and 1 x mortar 60 mm. Each rifle group had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, 1 x FN FALO saw 7.62 mm, and probably 7 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm and 1 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm. ¶ The combat support group basically comprised a mortar section: a command group and two mortar groups. Each mortar group had 1 x Hotchkiss Brandt mortar 81 mm.
   
Company group strength: 5/23/120 (148). Company staff strength: 2/3/9 (14). Infantry platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: 2/1/8 (9). Combat support group / mortar section strength: –/5/7 (12). Command group strength: –/3/1 (4). Mortar group strength: –/1/3 (4). Service support group strength: –/3/17 (20). 3 Amphibious Combat Group strength: 15/69/360 (444). 
 
3 Amphibious Combat Group was one of the three amphibious light infantry battalions of the Marine Corps. It was a mobilisable unit, earmarked for deployment to the Netherlands Antilles to relieve 2 Amphibious Combat Group if that unit would be concentrated in the Netherlands for its NATO role. It did not have a staff and support company; once deployed to the Antilles its three company groups would probably operate directly under Naval Command Netherlands Antilles.2 31 and 32 Company Group would be stationed at Naval Base Parera, Curaçao whilst 33 Company Group would be stationed at Marine Barracks Savaneta, Aruba. The company groups appear to be designed to operate independently, and the absence of a staff and support company probably explains the minus sign (-). To maintain proficiency parts of 3 Amphibious Combat Group were periodically called up for a four-week refresher training: probably each company group was called up once every four years, after being filled with new reservists.3

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.112, inv. nr. 145, BL 4340 - 3AGGP (-) (concept), undated, probably 1982. Ibid., BL 4340 - 3AGGP d.d. 1 augustus 1983. Also NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 6099 (Bemanningslijsten 3 Amfibische Gevechtgroep, 1982-1983).
2. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 535, NDPP Concept krijgsmachtdeelplan Koninklijke Marine 1984-1993 d.d. maart 1983, 35.
3. See Marine Corps, footnote 7. 

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The Logistic Support Group 1
De logistieke ondersteuningsgroep (LOGOSTGRP)


GNKGPCOGPLOGOSTGRPREPGPTGPBEVOGPADMINGP

One command group, one administration group, one supply group, one transport group, one repair group, and one medical group.
 
Command group strength: 3/3/12 (18). Administration group strength: –/–/7 (7). Supply group strength: –/3/30 (33). Transport group strength: –/–/29 (29). Repair group strength: –/–/12 (12). Medical group strength:  –/1/2 (3). Logistic support group strength: 3/7/92 (102).
 
The Royal Navy's war plans included the mobilisation of two of these units: 1 and 2 Logistic Support Group. These would probably be placed under the operational command of 1 and 2 Amphibious Combat Group respectively.2

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 5960, BL4302 - 1LOGOSTGRP d.d. 3 november 1982. Ibid., inv. nr. 6089, BL 4311 - 2 LOGOSTGRP d.d. 10 november 1982 - 22 december 1982. 
2. See 1 Amphibious Combat Group, footnote 3.

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Boat Company Group 1
Compagniesbootgroep (CIEBOOTGP)


6e BOOTPLG7e BOOTPLG8e BOOTPLG9e BOOTPLG10e BOOTPLG5e BOOTPLGCOGPCIEBOOTGP4e BOOTPLG3e BOOTPLG2e BOOTPLG1e BOOTPLG

One command group and ten boat teams (1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10). Each boat team operated 1 x Landing Craft Assault (LCA) Mark I or II (each with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm).2  
 
Command group strength: 1/2/1 (4). Boat team strength: –/–/3 (3). Company Boat Group strength: 1/2/31 (34).
 
The Boat Company Group provided the Marine Corps with limited amphibious movement capability (ship to shore, both tactical and logistical). It was integrated in 539 (UK) Assault Squadron Royal Marines. Five boat teams (winterised) were earmarked for arctic operations with 1 Amphibious Combat Group and would probably deploy to northern Norway as part of the United Kingdom/Netherlands Landing Force (UK/NL LF) in wartime. In this context these teams were referred to as the LCA-detachment (LCADET). Five boat teams (not winterised) were intended for operations in non-arctic areas with 2 Amphibious Combat Group. Besides the LCAs the unit also had a number of Landing Craft Rubber Motorised (LCMR).3

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 5963, BL 4325 - CIEBOOTGP d.d. 17 november 1982. Ibid., inv. nr. 6091, BL 4801 - AOK d.d. 10 november 1982 - 2 februari 1983.
2. In 1985 the Marine Corps had 10 x LCA Mark I, of which five winterised (probably fitted with a roof and heating), and 5 x LCA Mark II of which three went into service in July and December 1985. A sixth LCA Mark II went into service in January 1987; by that time the number of LCAs Mark I, in service since the 1960s, had been reduced to six. The LCA Mark II was slightly larger than the Mark I, had a roof, extra heating and a radar. Both the Mark I and Mark II were made of polyester and could land an infantry platoon or a Land Rover with trailer. The Mark II could also land a Bv 202 over-snow vehicle. In 1986 a second series of six LCAs Mark II was cancelled in favour of six LCAs Mark III, later designated Landing Craft Vehicle and Personnel (LCVP) Mark III; these went into service in the early 1990s. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 773, Informatiebulletin Commandant Korps Mariniers d.d. 22 november 1982, 35. Jaarboek KM 1985, 200-202. Jaarboek KM 1986, 156, 182-184. Jaarboek KM 1987, 326-327. Moore, Fighting Ships, 355. Haring, Mariniers 325 jaar, 31. Website Stichting Keep Them Landing, Stichting.    
3. See also Marine Corps, footnote 9.

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Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit / Navy Patrols Division Netherlands 1
Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Korps Mariniers / Afdeling Marinepatrouilles Nederland (BBE/MP)


3e PEL BBE5e BBE/MPPLG6e BBE/MPPLGCOGP2e BBE/MPPLG3e BBE/MPPLG4e BBE/MPPLGDET AVD-KM2e AMFGP (AMFSIE)COGP BBE-MARNS/AMPNEDBBE-MARNS/AMPNEDGNKSIERESERVEPEL BBE/2e MPPEL1e BBE/MPPLGALARMPEL BBE/1e MPPEL

Comprising the command group, the Alert Platoon BBE/1st MP Platoon (ALARM/1 MP), and the Reserve Platoon BBE/2nd MP Platoon (RESERVE/2 MP). ¶ Each platoon comprised a three-men command group and six five-men special assistance / navy patrol teams (1 BBE/MP - 2 BBE/MP - 3 BBE/MP - 4 BBE/MP - 5 BBE/MP - 6 BBE/MP). In their special assistance role (antiterrorism) these teams were referred to as assault teams (aanvalsploegen). For such operations personal armament comprised 1 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, 1 x revolver (Ruger, .38 inch or .357 inch), and 1 x combat knife per man. In addition each platoon had 6 x Heckler & Koch MP5A3 submachine gun 9 mm with target pointer/aiming light (richtpuntprojector) and 6 x Heckler & Koch MP5SD with integrated suppressor.2 The unit further had 6 x shotgun, only to be used with special permission. Other armament included hand grenades; noise/stun, tear gas and smoke grenades; and various types of demolition charges. In 1982 the unit acquired two command vehicles, probably GMC Suburbans, and two Chevrolet busses, by which the command group and the Alert Platoon could be deployed in one move. Probably also in use or assigned were 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover with ¼-tonne trailer for ammunition and explosives, 2 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck for BBE-equipment, and 1 x Unimog ambulance.3 ¶ During antiterrorism operations a three-men medical section (probably with the aforementioned ambulance) and a detachment of the Royal Navy Audiovisual Service (Audiovisuele Dienst Koninklijke Marine, AVD-KM) (AVD) would be attached to the unit. Also attached would be, if required, the 2nd Group of the Amphibious Section (2) which was specialised in maritime counterterrorism operations. For prolonged or extensive operations a third organic (reserve) platoon could be formed from BBE-trained marines (3 BBE). ¶ For MP duties personal armament comprised a pistol (probably the standard FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm) and a baton, whilst Land Rovers and possibly motorcycles were used for transportation.4 
 
Command group strength: 2/2/4 (8). Platoon strength: 1/7/25 (33). Command group strength: 1/1/1 (3). Team strength: –/1/4 (5). Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit / Navy Patrols Division Netherlands strength: 4/16/54 (74). Total strength with third BBE platoon: 5/23/79 (107).
 
As its name indicates, the BBE/MP was double-roled as counterterrorism/navy policing unit. As Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Mariniers, BBE-M, also BBE-MARNS) it was one of three high-readiness Special Assistance Units (Bijzondere Bijstandseenheden, BBE) available to the Minister of Justice for counterterrorism operations. BBE-M was specialised in close quarters combat and was operational in both peace and wartime. In wartime (part of) BBE-M could be deployed as part of a regular marine combat unit, for instance 1 Amphibious Combat Group. Personnel consisted of hand-picked marines that had passed psychodiagnostic tests and were thoroughly trained in close combat techniques. Training and exercises emphasised controlled application of force. The unit was deployed several times during the 1970s and saw action in 1974, 1977 and 1978. Apart from regularly exercising with its two sister units BBE-M regularly cross-trained with foreign counterterrorism units such as SAS (UK), GSG 9 (GE) and US special forces. As Navy Patrols Division Netherlands (Afdeling Marinepatrouilles Nederland, AMPNED) the unit performed limited military policing duties, messenger services and ceremonial duties within the Royal Navy.5

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 5961, BL 4230 - BBE/MP d.d. 2 november 1983; see also ibid., inv. nr. 6096, BL 4401 - DETHLDRWD d.d. 17 november 1982 and ibid., inv. nr. 6098, BL 4803 - VBHKAZ d.d. 5 september 1983. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 672, Herziening standaardpakket materiaal BBE-MP d.d. 13 juli 1983.
2. A hundred Ruger revolvers and thirty-five Heckler & Koch submachine guns were acquired for BBE-M through the Ministry of Justice in 1982. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 773, Informatiebulletin Commandant Korps Mariniers d.d. 22 november 1982, 22. This document does not further specify the revolver type. Previously the Smith & Wesson Police Special revolver .38 inch had been in use. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 8576, Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid Korps Mariniers d.d. 16 oktober 1973.    
3. Command vehicles and busses: NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 773, loc. cit. Other vehicles: ibid., inv. nr. 673 (Stukken betreffende het verzoek om uitbreiding van de dislocatiestaat voertuigen Van Braam Houckgeestkazerne ten behoeve van de BBE-MP, 1980-1982).
4. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 8567, Circulaire voor de zeemacht D64 Voorschrift betreffende de Bijzondere Bijstandseenheid van het Korps Mariniers - Marinepatrouille in Nederland (BBE-MP) d.d. 6 oktober 1983. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 923, Bevoorrading d.d. 29 november 1979, Bijlage V.
5. See further Marine Corps, Part I,  note i, and footnotes 10 and 12.

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Navy Patrol Company Netherlands 1
Marinepatrouillecompagnie Nederland (MPCIE)


5e MPPELMP4e MPPELMPCIECOGPCIESTAF3e GP2e GP3e MPPELMPMP2e MPPEL1e MPPELMPMPMP1e GP

One company staff, and five navy patrol platoons (1-2-3-4-5). Each platoon comprised a command group, and three navy patrol groups (1-2-3). Each navy patrol group comprised one group commander (GC) and six navy patrols. Each navy patrol comprised a patrol commander and one patrol member. In 1977 each patrol commander was armed with an UZI submachine gun, and each patrol member was armed with a FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm.
 
Company staff strength: 2/1/3 (6). Navy patrol platoon strength: 1/5/45 (51). Command group strength: 1/2/9 (12). Navy patrol group strength: –/1/12 (13). Navy patrol strength: –/–/2 (2). Navy Patrol Company Netherlands strength: 7/26/228 (261).

Navy Patrol Company Netherlands was a mobilisable Marine Corps unit, tasked to guard wartime headquarters of the Royal Navy in the Netherlands, probably in addition to its normal policing role. Its platoons would be mobilised at different locations and the company would probably not operate as a single unit. It seems likely that in wartime the company would take over some or all MP duties that were in peacetime carried out by the Marine Corps Special Assistance Unit / Navy Patrols Division Netherlands.2

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 5967, BL 4203 - MPCIE d.d. 20 juli 1983. MM, Uitrustingstabellen Korps Mariniers d.d. 4 mei 1977, 30-32.
2. See further Marine Corps, Part I, note j and footnotes 11 and 12.

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The Security Detachment 1
Het bewakingsdetachement (BEWDET)


BEWGPBEWGPBEWGPSTAFSIEBEWDETBEWPELBEWPELBEWPEL

One staff section, and three security platoons. Each security platoon comprised a platoon commander (PC) and three security groups. Each security group had 1 x FN FALO saw 7.62 mm.
 
In 1981 total equipment included 9 x
FN FALO saw 7.62 mm, 77 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm, 12 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, 5 x FN Browning Hi-Power pistol 9 mm, and two radios.
 
Staff section strength: 1/2/7 (10). Security platoon strength: 1/3/27 (31). Security group strength: –/1/9 (10). Security detachment strength: 4/11/88 (103).

 
On mobilisation twenty-five of these
Marine Corps security detachments, numbered A-Y, would be called up. They would operate under the authority of Naval Commander Netherlands, guarding and securing naval bases and installations.2

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.12.56, inv. nr. 5975, BL 4410 - BEWDET A d.d. 1 juni 1983 - 3 augustus 1983. Ibid., inv. nr. 5976, BL 4411 - BEWDET B d.d. 1 juni 1983 - 3 augustus 1983. NL-HaNA 2.13.141, inv. nr. 796, voorlopige studie "Reorganisatie mobilisabel personeel Korps Mariniers" d.d. 13 februari 1981. 
2. See further Marine Corps, Part III and footnote 19. See also footnote 17 there for Marine Band personnel serving in security detachments.

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ROYAL ARMY • KONINKLIJKE LANDMACHT

The Brigade Staff and Staff Company 1
Staf en stafcompagnie pantser(infanterie)brigade (ststcie pa(inf)brig)


sie vbdd, sie vk/vrv, sie nbc, sie gnkdsie S1, S2, S3, S4onhgpadmbevogpbvpkeukengpbrigcogp, plv brigcogplsplg (3x)ciestcogpcogpstwpelmob stwgpstwgp (2x)lngpcogpbkgprdgpStstcie pa(inf)brigvbdpelgvgpbrigst

Comprising the brigade staff, one signals platoon, one staff guard platoon, one brigade reconnaissance platoon, and the company staff. ¶ The brigade staff comprised the brigade command group with 1 x M577A1 armoured command post carrier and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover; the deputy brigade command group with 1 x M577A1 and 1 x DAF 66 YA light utility vehicle; Section S1 (personnel) with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover and 1 x DAF 66 YA; Section S2 (intelligence) with 1 x M577A1 and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover; Section S3 (operations and training) with 1 x M577A1, 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover and 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch; Section S4 (logistics) with 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck and 2 x DAF 66 YA; a signals section with 1 x DAF 66 YA; a traffic and transport section with 1 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi; an NBC section with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover; a medical section with 1 x DAF 66 YA; an information service section; a chaplain group with 2 x DAF 66 YA; and three liaison teams with 1 x DAF 66 YA each. ¶ The signals platoon comprised a command group with 1 x DAF 66 YA and 1 x YA-4440; a radio group with 2 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck and 2 x one-tonne trailer (generator); a line group with 2 x ¾-tonne Land Rover; and a message office with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 1 x YA-4440 and two motorcycles. ¶ The staff guard platoon comprised a command group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 1 x YA-4440, one motorcycle and 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch; two staff guard groups sharing 1 x YA-4440 2 and having 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm each; and one mobile staff guard group with 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover, three motorcycles and 2 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. ¶ The company staff comprised a command group with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover and 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover; an administration and supply group with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 2 x YA-4440, 1 x one-tonne trailer (water) and 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch; a maintenance group with 2 x YA-4440 and 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch; and a kitchen group with 1 x YA-4440, 1 x trailer (field kitchen) and 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch. || The company had 30 x M72 LAW 66 mm.

Company strength: 32/34/148/2 (216).

Each armoured (infantry) brigade had one company of this type. During operations the brigade staff would be organised into a coordinating staff and a special staff. The coordinating staff included the deputy brigade commander and the sections S1, S2, S3 and S4. The special staff comprised the remaining five specialist sections, whose work would be directed by the coordinating staff. In the field the company would usually be divided into the brigade command post, for the brigade commander and his staff, and the company area, in which the remainder of the company would operate.3  

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 185, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) staf en stafcompagnie pantserinfanteriebrigade, 1978. VS 17-145, 1-11 (also VS 17-142 and VS 17-143). The data regarding vehicles and armament comes from the aforementioned NL-HaNA document from 1978, which means that it is probably not entirely accurate for 1985. Some or all of the DAF 66 YA vehicles for instance may have been replaced with Land Rovers.
2. Sharing 1 x YA-4440: one of the staff guard groups would probably travel in the YA-4440 of the command group, as they were only five men strong; the two staff guard groups were nine and ten men strong respectively, the latter having a truck chauffeur.
3. VS 2-1392 (±1971), II-29. VS 17-142, A-6-2 t/m A-6-5 (also VS 17-143). Felius, Einde Oefening, 157.

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104 Observation and Reconnaissance Company 1
104 Waarnemings- en verkenningscompagnie (104 Wrnverkcie)


vbdpelciest3e Pel4e Pellogpel2e Pel104 Wrnverkcie1e Pelwrnverkplg (9x) cogptxgp / tech resrdgp (4x)verwgpcogpbevogpkeukengptgponhgpcogpadmgpcogp

One company staff, four observation and reconnaissance platoons (1-2-3-4) (of which 4th Platoon on Short Leave), a signals platoon and a logistic support platoon. ¶ The company staff, with 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover and 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch for self-defence, comprised a command group and an administration group.2 ¶ Each observation and reconnaissance platoon comprised a command group of two men and nine observation and reconnaissance teams of four men each. Their armament included UZI submachine guns (possibly with suppressors), hand grenades, white phosphorus grenades and possibly mines (two per team). ¶ The signals platoon comprised a command group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck and 3 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch for self-defence; one telex group/technical reserve with 1 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck and 1 x one-tonne trailer (generator); four radio groups with 1 x YA-126 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (generator) each; and one replacement group with 1 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck and 1 x one-tonne trailer.2 The replacement group enabled the signals platoon to remain operational around the clock by applying crew rotations. ¶ The logistic support platoon comprised a command group with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover; a supply group with 3 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (water); a maintenance group with 2 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer; a transport group with 12 x YA-4440; and a kitchen group with 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x trailer (field kitchen).2 || Throughout the company personal armament consisted mainly of UZI submachine guns.3

Company staff strength in 1980: 2/2/3 (7).2 Observation and reconnaissance platoon strength: 3/8/27 (38). Signals platoon strength in 1980: 1/8/18 (27).2 Logistic support platoon strength in 1980: 1/13/23 (37).2 Company strength: 13/49/199 (261).

104 Observation and Reconnaissance Company was a dedicated Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol unit (LRRP) and as such would operate in a tactical military intelligence-gathering role for the staff of 1 (NL) Corps. To this end its observation and reconnaissance teams would be covertly deployed behind enemy lines in the Corps Area of Intelligence Responsibility by means of paradrop, infiltration on foot or, preferably, by stay-behind method.4 From concealed dugouts the four-man teams would send their observations in the form of digitally coded 'burst' messages to the signals platoon back in the Netherlands, which would relay them to 1 (NL) Corps Staff. The company constituted the main operational element of the Commando Corps (Korps Commandotroepen) and was largely composed of hand-picked conscripts who went through a tough selection procedure and the basic commando training before being allowed to wear the coveted green beret. Each commando was then further trained to be an accomplished parachutist, telegraphist, code-expert, marksman and survival expert. Much emphasis was placed on survival techniques and endurance, and training in this field was particularly tough. Advanced training further included recognition of NATO and Warsaw Pact materiel, parachute jumping, mountain and winter training, and escape & evasion techniques. The company was largely self-supporting and had its own chauffeurs, cooks, mechanical engineers, parachute riggers and medical and administrative personnel.5

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 1369, Reorganisatie 104 Wrnverkcie d.d. 15 februari 1976. Ibid., Stafbespreking IGK:  Problematiek 104 Wrnverkcie d.d. 2 maart 1978. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 217, Reorganisatie 104 Wrnverkcie d.d. 21 november 1978. SSA-MvD, 7486, ONDAS-ritmen 1984-1988 d.d. 20 augustus 1984. VS-2 1351 (1985) 17-1, 17-2. Krijger en Elands, Commandotroepen, 104-106.
2. It should be noted that the personnel strengths and equipment data for the company staff, the signals platoon and the logistic platoon are taken from official tables of organisation and equipment from November 1978 (to be effectuated in September 1980) and must therefore be considered at least partly outdated for 1985: the company's war strength rose from 223 men in 1980 to 261 men in 1985, which increase probably occurred in the aforementioned subunits.
3. In 1980 the only exceptions to this were the company commander and the medic of the logistic support platoon's command group, both armed with a pistol (FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm). NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 217, op. cit.
4. In 1975 the Area of Intelligence Responsibility for 1 (NL) Corps extended eastward from the corps FEBA (Forward Edge of Battle Area; roughly along the Elbe-Seitenkanal) across the Inner German Border to, roughly, the line Parchim-Havelberg-Stendal (see the map here). NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 1369, Memorandum 104 Waarnemings- en verkenningscompagnie d.d. 7 mei 1975.
5. For this paragraph: ibid. Krijger en Elands, op. cit., 102-128. Walthuis, Commando's, 102-105. An army information film, Van Mutsdas tot Groene Baret (1991), on the selection and training of the company's conscript commandos, can be viewed here.

<


The Reconnaissance Battalion 1
Het verkenningsbataljon (verkbat)


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One staff and support squadron and three reconnaissance squadrons (A-B-C) (of which C Squadron on Short Leave). ¶ The staff and support squadron comprised the battalion staff with 2 x M113 C&V, a signals platoon, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the squadron staff. ¶ The three reconnaissance squadrons each comprised a squadron staff and three reconnaissance platoons (1-2-3). The squadron staff comprised a command group with 1 x M113 C&V, 1 x M577A1, 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover and two motorcycles; a radar group with 2 x M113A1 (each with a ZB 298 battlefield surveillance radar and an M2 hmg .50 inch); an administration and supply group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 2 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck and 1 x trailer (water); a maintenance group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and 2 x YA-4440; and a kitchen group with 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x trailer (field kitchen). The three reconnaissance platoons each comprised a command group with 1 x M113 C&V; a reconnaissance group comprising two reconnaissance teams, each with 2 x M113 C&V; a tank group with two main battle tanks; a rifle group mounted in an M113A1 (with M2 hmg .50 inch) with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm; and a mortar group with 1 x M106A1 (with M30 mortar 4.2 inch and M2 hmg .50 inch). || The battalion's inventory further included a number of M72 LAWs 66 mm, and probably a DAF YEE-2000 SB treadway bridge.2 Dutch M113 C&Vs were fitted with an Oerlikon GBD-AOA turret armed with a KBA-B autocannon 25 mm.3

Staff and support squadron strength: 15/34/192/2 (243). Reconnaissance squadron strength: 5/31/127 (163). Reconnaissance platoon strength: 1/8/31 (40). Battalion strength: 30/127/573/2 (732).

The large number of radios in use within the battalion enabled commanders to regroup their assets in order to adapt to the tactical situation. The most common alternative organisation was referred to as POSO, being the Dutch acronym for Platoon Organisation Suspended (Pelotons-Organieke Samenstelling Opgeheven). POSO involved a function-based regrouping of the platoons' subunits within the reconnaissance squadron, concentrating the squadron's combat power in five platoons, as illustrated in the chart below. The disadvantage of POSO was that the squadron command structure was not really suited to it.4


MrpeleskstVerkeskTirpelTkpel2e Verkpel1e Verkpel

Another alternative organisation that was experimented with during exercises involved a (partial) regrouping at battalion level, referred to as EOSO: Squadron Organisation Suspended (Eskadrons-Organieke Samenstelling Opgeheven), which would for instance enable the battalion commander to concentrate his eighteen main battle tanks in a tank squadron. The aforementioned disadvantage in terms of command would likely have applied here as well.5

Distribution of tank types per battalion:

103 Reconnaissance Battalion: Leopard 2.6
104 Reconnaissance Battalion: transitioning from Leopard 1 to Leopard 1V. A Squadron was re-equipped in June 1985, B Squadron was to be re-equipped in October 1985 and C Squadron (the Short Leave squadron) in April 1986 (as per the planning of July 1985; however, given the persistence of the technical problems with the Leopard 1 upgrading programme and the delays these had already caused, it is quite possible that the re-equipping of B and C Squadron was further delayed). The battalion was formed between November 1983 and March 1984.6 7
102 Reconnaissance Battalion: Leopard 1. To transition to Leopard 1V as follows (as per the planning of July 1985): A Squadron to be re-equipped in August 1986, B Squadron in February 1987 and C Squadron in June 1987; as noted above it is however quite possible that delays occurred.6 7
105 Reconnaissance Battalion: Leopard 2. The battalion was formed between November 1983 and March 1984 without tanks; B and C Squadron received their complement of six Leopard 2 tanks in October 1984 and April 1985 respectively, C Squadron was complemented in August 1985.6

_________________________________________________

1. VS 17-133/2, A-6-2 t/m A-6-7. VS 17-135, 1-5, 1-7. VS 17-143, A-5-2, B-6-1 t/m B-6-25. VS 17-144, B-6-1. Mulder, Verkenningseenheden, 123.
2. Elands et al., 250 jaar, 194. For a description of the treadway bridge system see The Armoured Engineer Company, footnote 4.
3. Foss, Armour and Artillery, 234, 842-843. M113 C&V (Commando en Verkenning) was the Dutch designation for the Lynx/M113 Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle.
4. VS 17-136, 1-4 t/m 1-9. Smit, Leopard 1, 74-75. Rens en Reitsma: Verkenningseenheden, waarheen?, 2329.
5. EOSO: for instance mentioned in Verkenningeenheden, waarheen? - Discussie, 2346. At present I have no specific data on this organisation type; it may have been an enlarged version of POSO, with two reconnaissance squadrons, a tank squadron, a rifle (armoured infantry) squadron and a mortar squadron.
6. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 514, Planningsmemorandum Reorganisatie Tank- en Verkenningseenheden d.d. 1 november 1982, Bijlage I-B. SSA-MvD, CLAS/BLS 7486, Memorandum Realisatie Legerplan 149-5B d.d. 10 Juli 1985, Bijlage B, 14. For the formation of 104 Reconnaissance Battalion see also Rens, Huzaren van Boreel, 402-403.
7. The last of the 468 Leopard 1Vs was delivered on 16 December 1987. Smit, op. cit., 95-96. For a detailed analysis of the problems with the Leopard 1 upgrading programme and their consequences see NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 682, Aantekening DMKL "Het wapensysteem Leopard 1V" d.d. 28 augustus 1986, 6-8; HTK 1989-1990, kamerstuknr. 21610 ondernr. 2 (Rapport Leopardtanks Algemene Rekenkamer), 52-61, 68-71; Smit, op. cit., 95-100.

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53 Light Reconnaissance Battalion 1
53 Licht Verkenningsbataljon (53 Ltverkbat)


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One staff and support squadron and three light reconnaissance squadrons (A-B-C). ¶ The staff and support squadron comprised the battalion staff, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the squadron staff. ¶ The three light reconnaissance squadrons each comprised a squadron staff and three light reconnaissance platoons (1-2-3). The squadron staff comprised a command group with 2 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 1 x DAF YA-328 three-tonne truck, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and two motorcycles; an administration and supply group with 1 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 1 x YA-328, 1 x one-tonne trailer and 1 x trailer (water); a maintenance group with 1 x M38A1, 1 x YA-328 and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer; a kitchen group with 1 x YA-328 and 1 x trailer (field kitchen); and a replacement holding group comprising one three-men jeep crew and one extra jeep chauffeur. The three light reconnaissance platoons each comprised a command group and two reconnaissance groups, each reconnaissance group comprising two reconnaissance teams. The command group had 1 x M38A1, 1 x YA-126 with trailer, six inflatable reconnaissance boats for three to four men, and 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm. Each reconnaissance team had 2 x M38A1 (with FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount). || The battalion's inventory further included 16 x M2 hmg .50 inch and a number of M72 LAWs 66 mm.2

Staff and support squadron strength: 16/29/127/2 (174). Light reconnaissance squadron strength: 5/21/97 (123). Light reconnaissance platoon strength: 1/5/25 (31). Battalion strength: 31/92/418/2 (543).

When the battalion was disbanded in 1985-1986 total equipment included: 106 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, nine motorcycles, eightteen inflatable reconnaissance boats for three to four men, 22 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 1 x DAF YA-324 three-tonne truck, 33 x DAF YA-328 three-tonne truck, 31 x one-tonne trailer, 4 x one-tonne trailer (water), 18 x ¼-tonne trailer, 4 x trailer (field kitchen), 2 x YB-616/626 six-tonne tow truck, 2 x DAF 66 YA light utility vehicle, 6 x M38A1 ambulance, 3 x YA-126 ambulance, 16 x M2 hmg .50 inch, 80 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, 245 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm, 265 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, 31 x FN Browning Hi-Power pistol 9 mm, 27 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm.3

The battalion would operate in the corps or divisional rear areas, chiefly in an area security role; any reconnaissance missions would be executed within such context. Missions could include observation, traffic control assistance, disaster relief assistance, securing convoys and lines of communications; and operations against saboteurs, fifth column elements and small, lightly armed enemy units that had infiltrated or airdropped.4

After 105 Reconnaissance Battalion (RIM) had become fully operational, in August 1985, disbandment of 53 Light Reconnaissance Battalion began the next month and was completed in January 1986.5

_________________________________________________

1. VS 17-137, 1-1 t/m 1-5. VS 17-139, 1-2 t/m 1-4. VS 17-146, A-6-1 t/m A-6-2, A-6-4 t/m A-6-7, A-6-10 t/m A-6-11.
2. SSA-MvD, CLAS/BLS 7486, Memorandum Realisatie Legerplan 149-9B d.d. 13 februari 1986.
3. Ibid., Bijlage A.
4. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 626, Planningsmemorandum opheffen 53 Licht Verkenningsbataljon d.d. 15 februari 1985. VS 17-137, 1-1.
5. SSA-MvD, CLAS/BLS 7486, op. cit. See also 1 (NL) Corps, note e.

<


The Brigade Reconnaissance Platoon 1
Het brigadeverkennerspeloton (bvp)


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One command group and three reconnaissance teams (of which one on Short Leave). ¶ The command group, with 1 x M113A1 (probably with M2 hmg .50 inch), 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and one motorcycle, had 2 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 2 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm. ¶ The three reconnaissance teams each had 2 x M113 C&V (with KBA-B autocannon 25 mm) and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm.

Command group strength: 1/1/8 (10). Reconnaissance team strength: -/2/4 (6). Platoon strength: 1/7/20 (28).

Each armoured (infantry) brigade had one reconnaissance platoon of this type in its staff and staff company.

________________________________________________

1. VS 17-142, hoofdstuk 6. VS 17-143, hoofdstuk 6. VS 17-145, 1-1 t/m 1-2, 1-12 t/m 1-14. Mulder, Verkenningseenheden, 123. Rens, Huzaren van Boreel, 399. Rens writes that the M113A1 had a ZB 298 battlefield surveillance radar; I believe this to be an error as I have not found any record of this in the aforementioned sources. Mulder (op. cit., 122) actually notes the absence of radars.

<


The Reconnaissance Platoon of the Tank/Armoured Infantry Battalion 1
Het verkenningspeloton van het tank- en het pantserinfanteriebataljon (verkpel)


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One command group, one reconnaissance group, and one radar group. ¶ The command group had 2 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and three motorcycles. ¶ The reconnaissance group comprised two reconnaissance teams, each with 2 x ¾-tonne Land Rover (with FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount). ¶ The radar group comprised three radar teams, each mounted in a YPR-765 PRRDR (with M2 hmg .50 inch) with a ZB 298 battlefield surveillance radar, which could be either mounted on the vehicles or deployed separately on the ground. || YP-408 equipped armoured infantry battalions had YP-408 PWRDRs (with M2 hmg .50 inch) rather than YPRs, likewise with a ZB 298 radar.

Command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Reconnaissance group Strength: -/2/10 (12). Radar group strength: -/3/12 (15). Platoon strength: 1/6/27 (34).

Each tank battalion and each armoured infantry battalion had a platoon of this type in its staff and support company.

________________________________________________

1. VS 17-140, 1-1, 1-4. VS 17-147, A-1-12 t/m A-1-13. Mulder, Verkenningseenheden, 123. Website DAF YP-408 Forgotten Hero, DAF YP-408 PW-RDR.

<


The Tank Battalion of the Armoured Brigade 1
Het tankbataljon van de pantserbrigade (tkbat)


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One staff and support squadron and three tank squadrons (A-B-C) (of which C Squadron on Short Leave 2). ¶ The staff and support squadron, with one main battle tank and 3 x Leopard Bergepanzer 2 Armoured Recovery Vehicle (with 2 x gpmg 7.62 mm), comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance platoon, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the squadron staff. ¶ The three tank squadrons each comprised a squadron staff and four tank platoons (1-2-3-4). The squadron staff comprised a command group with one main battle tank, 1 x YPR-765 PRCO-C1 (with M2 hmg .50 inch), 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 3 x ½-tonne Land Rover and two motorcycles; an administration and supply group with 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck; and a maintenance group with 1 x YA-4440, 1 x trailer (workshop) and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover. Each tank platoon comprised four main battle tanks. In combat a tank platoon would be divided into two sections of two tanks each, one section led by the platoon commander and the other by the platoon second-in-command.

Tank battalion equipped with Leopard 2: Staff and support squadron strength: 16/41/236/2 (295). Tank squadron strength: 7/19/69 (95). Battalion strength: 37/98/443/2 (580).

Tank battalion equipped with Leopard 1V: Staff and support squadron strength: 17/40/227/2 (286). Tank squadron strength: 7/19/69 (95). Battalion strength: 38/97/434/2 (571).3

Total number of main battle tanks: 52.

This unit type superseded the old battalion organisation. In 1985 it was still being implemented in 13 and 51 Armoured Brigade as part of the comprehensive re-equipping and reorganisation programme for cavalry units known as Army Plan 149. The tank battalions of 41 Armoured Brigade had completed the transition in 1984.4

_________________________________________________

1. VS 17-131 (1983), VS 17-133/1, VS 17-133/2. Foss, Armour and Artillery, 25. Smit, Leopard 1, 53, 73. Spielberger, The Leopard, 147.
2. With the exception of 41 and 43 Tank Battalion of which all three tank squadrons were on active duty.
3. These are the authorised strengths for 11 Tank Battalion per December 1985 as given in NIMH 430, inv. nr. 55 (Slagorde KL stand 23 december 1985), in which the battalion is prematurely listed as being equipped with Leopard 1V, probably due to the delays in the Leopard 1 upgrading programme.
4. For a comprehensive overview of Army Plan 149 (Legerplan 149, Reorganisatie cavalerie-eenheden) see NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 514, Planningsmemorandum Reorganisatie Tank- en Verkenningseenheden d.d. 1 november 1982. Regarding this planning document it should be noted that realisation met with considerable delays where Leopard 1-V equipped battalions were concerned, due to the continuous problems with the Leopard 1 upgrading programme. For a detailed analysis of these problems and their consequences see NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 682, Aantekening DMKL "Het wapensysteem Leopard 1V" d.d. 28 augustus 1986, 6-8; HTK 1989-1990, kamerstuknr. 21610 ondernr. 2 (Rapport Leopardtanks Algemene Rekenkamer), 52-61, 68-71; Smit, op. cit., 95-100. The last of the 468 Leopard 1Vs was delivered on 16 December 1987. Smit, op. cit., 95-96.

<


The Tank Battalion of the Armoured Infantry Brigade 1
Het tankbataljon van de pantserinfanteriebrigade (tkbat)

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One staff and support squadron and four tank squadrons (A-B-C-D) (of which C Squadron on Short Leave and D Squadron mobilisable). ¶ The staff and support squadron, with one main battle tank and 3 x Leopard Bergepanzer 2 Armoured Recovery Vehicle (with 2 x gpmg 7.62 mm), comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance platoon, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the squadron staff. ¶ The two active-duty tank squadrons (A and B) each comprised a squadron staff and four tank platoons (1-2-3-4). The squadron staff comprised a command group with one main battle tank, 1 x YPR-765 PRCO-C1 (with M2 hmg .50 inch), 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 3 x ½-tonne Land Rover and two motorcycles; an administration and supply group with 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck; and a maintenance group with 1 x YA-4440, 1 x trailer (workshop) and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover. ¶ The Short Leave squadron (C) and the mobilisable squadron (D) each comprised a squadron staff (as above, but with 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover) and three tank platoons (1-2-3). Each tank platoon comprised four main battle tanks. In combat a tank platoon would be divided into two sections of two tanks each, one section led by the platoon commander and the other by the platoon second-in-command.

Tank battalion equipped with Leopard 2: Staff and support squadron strength: 18/40/268/2 (328). A and B Squadron strength: 7/19/69 (95). C and D Squadron strength: 6/16/56 (78). Battalion strength: 44/110/518/2 (674).2

Tank battalion equipped with Leopard 1V: Staff and support squadron strength: 17/40/256/2 (315).A and B Squadron strength: 7/19/69 (95). C and D Squadron strength: 6/16/56 (78). Battalion strength: 43/110/506/2 (661).3

Total number of main battle tanks: 61.

This unit type would supersede the old battalion organisation. In 1985 it was still being implemented as part of Army Plan 149, and no battalion had yet been augmented with a fourth tank squadron.4 Until the D Squadrons would be added, the C Squadrons would retain a strength of seventeen main battle tanks, which effectively meant that up to that point the tank battalions of this type would be organised as the tank battalion of the armoured brigade. In February 1986 42 Tank Battalion was the first battalion of this type to reach its full war strength with the addition of its D Squadron. For the actual state of affairs in the battalions concerned during 1985 refer to the armoured infantry brigade pages via the 1 (NL) Corps page.

_________________________________________________

1. VS 17-131 (1983), VS 17-133/1, VS 17-133/2. Foss, Armour and Artillery, 25. Smit, Leopard 1, 53, 73. Spielberger, The Leopard, 147.
2. These are the authorised strengths for 42 Tank Battalion per February 1986. NIMH 430, inv. nr. 55 (Slagorde KL stand 23 december 1985).
3. These are the authorised strengths for 101 Tank Battalion per December 1986. NIMH 430, inv. nr. 57 (Slagorde KL stand 29 december 1986).
4. Army Plan 149: see The Tank Battalion of the Armoured Brigade, footnote 4. See also Mixed Battalions and Company Teams, footnote 4.

<


The Tank Battalion (old organisation) 1
Het tankbataljon (oude organisatie) (tkbat)



3e Pel2e PelCeskonhgp1e PeleskstAeskcogpbatstonhpelverkpelbevopeltkgpvbdgptkbataanvgpgnkpelSsveskeskstBeskadmbevogp

One staff and support squadron and three tank squadrons (A-B-C) (of which C Squadron on Short Leave). ¶ The staff and support squadron, with two main battle tanks and either three or four armoured recovery vehicles,2 comprised the battalion staff, a tank group, a reconnaissance platoon, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the squadron staff. ¶ The three tank squadrons each comprised a squadron staff and three tank platoons (1-2-3). The squadron staff, with two main battle tanks, comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, a maintenance group, and a replacement holding group comprising one or two tank crews. Each tank platoon comprised five main battle tanks. In combat a tank platoon would be divided into two sections of two tanks each, with the platoon commander's tank joining one of both sections as needed.

Tank battalion equipped with Leopard 1: Staff and support squadron strength: 18/36/219/2 (275). Tank squadron strength: 6/22/73 (101). Battalion strength: 36/102/438/2 (578).3

Tank battalion equipped with Centurion Mk 5/2: Staff and support squadron strength: 18/36/220/2 (276). Tank squadron strength: 6/20/71 (97). Battalion strength: 36/96/433/2 (567).4

Total number of main battle tanks: 53.

Under Army Plan 149 this organisation type was superseded by the tank battalion of the armoured brigade and the tank battalion of the armoured infantry brigade. In 1985 11 Tank Battalion was the only tank battalion still completely equipped with the Leopard 1, since its transition to the Leopard 1V had been deferred to 1986 due to the continuous problems with the upgrading programme; as such the battalion probably retained this organisation type into 1986. The Centurion-equipped 52 Tank Battalion and 58 Tank Battalion had not yet begun the transition to Leopard 1V, again due to the aforementioned problems, and hence may have retained this organisation well into 1987. 57 Tank Battalion transitioned from Centurion to Leopard 2 in 1985-1986 and thus adopted the new organisation in or prior to this period.5

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv.nr. 232, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) staf, staf- en verzorgingseskadrons, 1976. VS 17-131 (1978), 1-11 t/m 1-12. VS 17-132, 1-4. VS 17-133, 1-5 t/m 1-10. VS 2-1351- B/1, XVII-7. Foss, Armour and Artillery, 25, 97-98. Ruys, Centuriontank, 221. Smit, Leopard 1, 53, 73. Spielberger, The Leopard, 147.
2. Leopard 1-equipped battalions had 3 x Leopard Bergepanzer 2 (with 2 x gpmg 7.62 mm), Centurion-equipped battalions had 4 x Centurion Mk 2 ARV (probably with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm).
3. These are the authorised strengths for 11 Tank Battalion per Juli 1984. NIMH 430, inv. nr. 51 (Slagorde KL stand 1 juli 1984). The official orders of battle of July and December 1985 erroneously list this battalion as already being (partly) equipped with Leopard 1V, probably due to the delays in the Leopard 1 upgrading programme. See also The Tank Battalion of the Armoured Brigade, footnote 3.
4. An illustrated radio net diagram for a Centurion-equipped tank battalion per 1980 can be seen here.
5. It appears that at least some tank battalions adopted the new organisation well in advance of the influx of the new tanks. 43 Tank Battalion seems to have adopted the new four-tank platoon organisation in 1981, two years prior to the transition from Leopard 1 to Leopard 2 in 1983-1984. Website 43 Tankbataljon, tanknamen. 41 Tank Battalion reportedly adopted the new platoon organisation in 1982. Westerhuis, Een tankeskadron, 11. 

<


The Armoured Infantry Battalion YPR-765 1
Het pantserinfanteriebataljon YPR-765 (painfbat)



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One staff and support company, three armoured infantry companies (A-B-C) (of which one on Short Leave 2), and one armoured combat support company (Paost). ¶ The staff and support company comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance platoon, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the company staff. ¶ The three armoured infantry companies each comprised a company staff and three armoured infantry platoons (1-2-3). The company staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. Each armoured infantry platoon comprised four groups (Pc-A-B-C). The Pc Group (with the platoon commander) was mounted in a YPR-765 PRI armoured infantry fighting vehicle (with Oerlikon KBA-B02 autocannon 25 mm and coaxial FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm) and had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 2 x M47 Dragon atgm system. A, B and C Group, each mounted in a YPR-765 PRI, had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm each. ¶ The armoured combat support company comprised a company staff, three antitank platoons (A-At, B-At, C-At) (of which one on Short Leave 2), and three mortar platoons (A-Mr, B-Mr, C-Mr) (of which one on Short Leave 2). The company staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. Each antitank platoon had 4 x YPR-765 PRAT tank destroyer (with dual TOW atgm launcher and FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount. In addition each YPR-765 PRAT had 1 x TOW atgm launcher on board to deploy dismounted 3). Each mortar platoon had 3 x MO-120-RT mortar 120 mm, each mortar towed by an YPR-765 PRMR (with M2 hmg .50 inch). || The battalion's inventory further included 253 x M72 LAW 66 mm.

Staff and support company strength: 18/36/210/2 (266). Armoured infantry company strength: 5/17/122 (144). Armoured infantry platoon strength: 1/4/34 (39). Pc-Group strength: 1/1/7 (9). A-B-C-Group strength: -/1/9 (10). Armoured combat support company strength: 11/38/140 (189). Battalion strength: 44/125/716/2 (887).

In 1986 total equipment included: 42 x YPR-765 PRI/PRCO-B armoured infantry fighting vehicle (with KBA-B02 autocannon 25 mm and coaxial FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm), 12 x YPR-765 PRAT tank destroyer (with dual TOW atgm launcher and FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount), 9 x YPR-765 PRMR (with M2 hmg .50 inch) towing 9 x MO-120-RT mortar 120 mm, 18 x YPR-765 of other types (most of which with M2 hmg .50 inch or FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount), 18 x M47 Dragon atgm system, 27 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm, 253 x M72 LAW 66 mm, 61 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, 302 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm, 512 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, 105 x FN Browning Hi-Power pistol 9 mm, thirty-five rifle/machine gun image intensification devices, one hundred and eighty-seven radios, two (inflatable) reconnaissance boats, fourteen motorcycles, 44 x Land Rover, 51 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck, five mobile field kitchens with water trailer; generators, tool sets, individual equipment, and ammunition (including hand grenades).4

This unit type was organic to the armoured (infantry) brigade. During operations the armoured combat support company would only comprise the mortar platoons, the antitank platoons being detached to the armoured infantry companies or placed under direct command of the battalion commander.

_________________________________________________

1. VS 7-210, 2-1 t/m 2-2. VS 7-216, 1-6 t/m 1-8, 5A-1 t/m 5A-2. Felius, Einde Oefening, 277. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 563, Briefing Legerraad vervanging pantserwielvoertuig YP-408 d.d. 1 november 1983, slide 10. The last document shows that, contrary to Staarman, De YPR-765, 134 [190 in the printed version], the platoon command group (Pc) of the armoured infantry company did not have a YPR-765 PRCO-B but a YPR-765 PRI — at least in the 1980s. See also Staarman, op. cit., Afb. 6 [printed version].
2. With the exception of 42 Armoured Infantry Battalion of which all three armoured infantry companies, mortar and antitank platoons were on active duty. SSA-MvD, 7486, ONDAS-ritmen 1984-1988 d.d. 20 augustus 1984.
3. Additional TOW: Staarman, op. cit., 130-131 [186-187 in the printed version].
4. Felius, loc. cit.

<


The Armoured Infantry Battalion YP-408 1
Het pantserinfanteriebataljon YP-408 (painfbat)





One staff and support company, three armoured infantry companies (A-B-C) (of which one on Short Leave 2), and one armoured combat support company (Paost). ¶ The staff and support company comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance platoon, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the company staff. ¶ The three armoured infantry companies each comprised a company staff and three armoured infantry platoons (1-2-3). The company staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. Each armoured infantry platoon comprised four groups (Pc-A-B-C). The Pc Group (with the platoon commander) was mounted in a DAF YP-408 PWI-PC armoured personnel carrier (with M2 hmg .50 inch) and had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 2 x M47 Dragon atgm system. A, B and C Group, each mounted in a YP-408 PWI-GR (with M2 hmg .50 inch), had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm each. ¶ The armoured combat support company comprised a company staff, one antitank platoon (At) and three mortar platoons (A-B-C) (of which one on Short Leave). The company staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. The antitank platoon had 6 x YP-408 PWAT (with TOW atgm launcher on mount). Each mortar platoon had 3 x MO-120-RT mortar 120 mm, each mortar towed by a YP-408 PWMR (with M2 hmg .50 inch). || The battalion's inventory further included ± 253 x M72 LAW 66 mm.

Staff and support company strength: 17/33/182/2 (234). Armoured infantry company strength: 6/18/122 (146). Armoured infantry platoon strength: 1/4/34 (39). Pc-Group strength: 1/1/7 (9). A-B-C-Group strength: -/1/9 (10). Armoured combat support company strength: 6/30/113 (149). Battalion strength: 41/117/661/2 (821).

This unit type was organic to the armoured (infantry) brigade. During operations the armoured combat support company would only comprise the mortar platoons, the antitank platoon being detached to the armoured infantry companies or placed under direct command of the battalion commander. The antitank platoon could be split into two or three sections for such purposes. 

_________________________________________________

1. VS 7-210, 2-1. VS 7-216, 1-6 t/m 1-8, 5B-1 t/m 5B-2. Website DAF YP-408 Forgotten Hero, Het pantserinfanteriebataljon YP-408 (1985).
2. The official Royal Army orders of battle from 1985 to 1989 show 44 Armoured Infantry Battalion as having three rather than two armoured infantry companies on active-duty in this period. NIMH 430, inv. nrs. 54 t/m 64 (Slagordes KL stand 1 juli 1985 t/m stand 1 januari 1990). Further research has shown this to be a (rather persistent) error in the files. Thanks to Colonel G.I. Onderstal (Rtd.), commander of the battalion from 1986 to 1988, Colonel A. de Munnik, commander of the battalion from 1990 to 1992, and T.W. Brocades Zaalberg of the Netherlands Institute of Military History (NIMH).

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The Armoured Antitank Company 1
De pantserantitankcompagnie (paatcie)



ciest6e Pel5e Pelpaatcie4e Pel3e Pel2e Pel1e Pelvzgpel

One company staff, six antitank platoons (1-2-3-4-5-6) (of which two on Short Leave), and one service support platoon. The six antitank platoons each comprised 4 x YPR-765 PRAT tank destroyer (with dual TOW atgm launcher and FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount. In addition each YPR-765 PRAT had 1 x TOW atgm launcher on board to deploy dismounted 3).

Company strength: 9/26/135 (170).

Total number of tank destroyers: 24

Each armoured infantry brigade had one company of this type, the antitank platoons of which would usually be assigned to the brigade's armoured infantry battalions during operations.2

________________________________________________

1. VS 17-145, 1-10. Vuyk, Kwant en Jansen, 11 Paatcie, 1. Anonymus, Pantserantitankcompagnieën, 13.
2. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, Met de blik, 389. Elands, Van Gils en Schoenmaker, Geschiedenis 1 Divisie, 234.
3. Staarman, De YPR-765, 186-187.

<


The Infantry Battalion of the Infantry Brigade 1
Het infanteriebataljon van de infanteriebrigade (infbat)



AgpCgpBgpOstgp mitrpel zwmrpel tlvpel cogpcogp1e Pel3e Pel2e Pel mrpel admbevogpciestcogpciestadmbevogpgnkpelbatstvbdpelciestvzgpelverkgpinfbatBcieAcieCcieOstcieSsvcie painfbatSsvciebatstciestverkpelonhpelbevopelgnkpelPcgpAgpBgpAtpelCgp3e Pel1e Pel2e PelCpelBpeladmbevogpApeladmbevogponhgpcogponhgpcogpciestPaostcieAcieBcieCcieciest

One staff and support company, three infantry companies (A-B-C), and one combat support company (Ost). ¶ The staff and support company comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance group, a signals platoon, a service support platoon, a medical platoon, and the company staff.2 ¶ The three infantry companies each comprised a company staff with 2 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm, three infantry platoons (1-2-3), and one mortar platoon with 3 x M1 mortar 81 mm. The company staff comprised a command group and an administration and supply group.2 Each infantry platoon comprised  a command group, three infantry groups (A-B-C), each with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, and one combat support group (Ost) with 2 x tripod-mounted FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and 2 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm. ¶ The combat support company comprised a company staff, a machine gun platoon with 8 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, a recoilless rifle platoon with 8 x M40A1 rclr 106 mm mounted on an M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, and a heavy mortar platoon with 4 x M30 mortar 4.2 inch. The company staff comprised a command group and an administration and supply group.2

Staff and support company strength: 14/29/153/2 (198). Infantry company strength: 6/21/135 (162). Infantry group strength: 0/1/8 (9). Combat support company strength: 5/21/123 (149). Battalion strength: 37/113/681/2 (833).

This unit type was found exclusively in 101 Infantry Brigade, which in wartime would be tasked with securing the Corps Rear Area. It did not have organic means of troop transport.3
 
Between 1988 and 1990 the role, organisation and equipment of 101 Infantry Brigade were redefined, reorganised and improved (see further here), as a consequence of which the unit type described above was superseded by two new types:
  • The armoured infantry battalion, with YPR-765s (with M2 hmg .50 inch), comprising a company staff, three armoured infantry companies with 12 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, 9 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm and  4 x M38A1 Jeep-mounted M40A1 rclr 106 mm each, and one armoured combat support company with 12 x YPR-mounted TOW atgm launcher and 9 x YPR-towed M30 mortar 4.2 inch. Staff and support company strength: 20/34/207/2 (263). Armoured infantry company strength: 6/17/132 (155). Armoured combat support company strength: 11/38/142 (191). Battalion strength: 49/123/745/2 (919).4
  • The infantry battalion, with DAF YA-328 three-tonne trucks (with M2 hmg .50 inch) for troop transport, comprising a company staff, three infantry companies with 24 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, 9 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm and 4 x M40A1 rclr 106 mm each, and one combat support company with 12 x TOW atgm launcher and 9 x M30 mortar 4.2 inch. The M40A1s and TOWs were mounted on M38A1 Jeeps. Staff and support company strength: 19/28/175/2 (224). Infantry company strength: 6/20/144 (170). Combat support company strength: 11/35/129 (175). Battalion strength: 48/123/736/2 (909).4
_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 544, Voordracht Legerraad op 31 mei 1983: Reorganisatie Infanterie, slide 9 (D-9169). NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 643, Planningsmemorandum Legerplan 162 d.d. 1 augustus 1985, 8. VR 7-266, 1-1 t/m 1-2. VS 7-205, 11, 15.
2. Due to lack of data the organisation of the staff and support company and the company staffs have been extrapolated from the territorial infantry battalion organisation, and are therefore not entirely certain; this uncertainty does however not pertain to the armament indicated. 
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 643, op. cit., 4, 7.
4. Ibid., 65, 66, 86-130. VS 7-205, 15.

<


The Territorial Security Infantry Battalion 1
Het infanteriebeveiligingsbataljon (infbevbat)



coplg coplg mitr .30 in (4x) tlv 106 (2x) mitrgp (2x) tlvpel tlvgp (4x) cogpcogpcogp mr 81 (3x) tpel mrpel cogp2e PelOstgp mitrpel mitrpel mitrpel 3e PelBgpAgpCgp1e Peladmbevogpadmbevogpcogpcogpciestciestgnkpelbatstvbdpelciestvzgpelverkgp infbevbat AcieCcieBcieOstcieSsvcie

One staff and support company, three security infantry companies (A-B-C), and one combat support company (Ost). ¶ The staff and support company comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance group, a signals platoon, a service support platoon, a transport platoon, a medical platoon, and the company staff. The battalion staff had four (civilian) passenger cars, 5 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 2 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck, 5 x ¼-tonne trailer, 2 x one-tonne trailer, and 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch. The reconnaissance group (comprising three reconnaissance teams) had three (civilian) passenger cars, 3 x M38A1 with M1919A4 mmg .30 inch mounted, and three inflatable reconnaissance boats. The signals platoon had 3 x M38A1, 1 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi, 1 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 1 x YA-314, 3 x ¼-tonne trailer, 1 x one-tonne trailer, and 1 x one-tonne trailer (generator). The service support platoon had 3 x M38A1, 15 x YA-314, 3 x ¼-tonne trailer, 10 x one-tonne trailer, 5 x one-tonne trailer (water), and 2 x Bren lmg .30 inch. The transport platoon had 1 x M38A1, 15 x YA-126, 10 x YA-314, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer, and 10 x one-tonne trailer. The medical platoon had 1 x M38A1, 7 x M38A1 ambulance, 1 x YA-314, and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer. The company staff had 1 x M38A1, 1 x YA-314, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and 1 x one-tonne trailer. ¶ The three infantry security companies each comprised a company staff, three rifle platoons (1-2-3) and one mortar platoon. The company staff comprised a command group and an administration and supply group. It had 1 x M38A1, 1 x YA-126, 1 x YA314, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer, 2 x one-tonne trailer, and 3 x Bren lmg .303 inch. Each rifle platoon comprised a command group, three rifle groups (A-B-C), and one combat support group (Ost). Each rifle group had 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch, each combat support group had 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch with tripod mount and 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch. The mortar platoon comprised a command group and thee mortar teams. The command group had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer, each mortar team had 1 x M38A1, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and one mortar 81 mm (probably M1). ¶ The combat support platoon comprised a company staff, three machine gun platoons and one recoilless rifle platoon. The company staff comprised a command group and an administration and supply group. It had 2 x M38A1, 1 x YA-126, 1 x YA-314, 2 x ¼-tonne trailer and 2 x one-tonne trailer. The three machine gun platoons each comprised a command group and two machine gun groups. The command group had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer. Each machine gun group had 2 x M38A1 and 2 x ¼-tonne trailer and comprised a command team and four machine gun teams. Each machine gun team had 1 x M1919A4 mmg .30 inch (combat support company total: 24 x M1919A4, of which 12 x Jeep-mounted and 12 x tripod-mounted). The recoilless rifle platoon comprised a command group and four recoilless rifle groups. The command group had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer. Each recoilless rifle group comprised a command team and two recoilless rifle teams. The command team had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer, each recoilless rifle team had 8 x M38A1 with 1 x M40A1 rclr 106 mm mounted (combat support company total: 8 x M40A1).
   
Staff and support company strength: 14/36/199/2 (251). Battalion staff strength: 7/8/21/2 (38). Reconnaissance group strength: -/3/9 (12). Signals platoon strength: 1/3/23 (27). Service support platoon strength: 2/12/54 (68). Transport platoon: 1/3/50 (54). Medical platoon: 2/2/37 (41). Company staff strength: 1/5/5 (11). Infantry security company strength:
6/21/122 (149). Company staff strength: 2/4/10 (16). Rifle platoon strength: 1/5/32 (38). Command group strength: 1/1/1 (3). Rifle group strength: -/1/8 (9). Combat support group strength: -/1/7 (8). Mortar platoon strength: 1/2/16 (19). Command group strength: 1/2/4 (7). Mortar team strength: -/-/4 (4). Combat support company strength: 6/16/158 (180). Company staff strength: 2/6/9 (17). Machine gun platoon strength: 1/2/35 (38). Command group strength: 1/-/3 (4). Machine gun group strength: -/1/16 (17). Command team strength: -/1/- (1). Machine gun team strength: -/-/4 (4). Recoilless rifle platoon strength: 1/4/44 (49). Command group strength: 1/-/4 (5). Recoilless rifle group strength: -/1/10 (11). Command team strength: -/1/2 (3). Recoilless rifle team strength: -/-/4 (4). Battalion strength: 38/115/723/2 (878).
   
The three battalions of this type were part of 
National Territorial Command and were earmarked for specific missions. 324 and 327 Security Infantry Battalion would secure the Zestienhoven and Schiphol Airports respectively, whilst 323 Security Infantry Battalion would secure Headquarters Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT), which in wartime would be located in a hill in the Eifel.2 The secondary role of 324 and 327 Security Infantry Battalion was to serve as a (mobile) general reserve for National Territorial Commander. Personal armament in these two battalions probably differed from the standard pattern, having M1 Garand semi-automatic rifles .30 inch rather than FN FAL battle rifles 7.62 mm.2 Because of its assignment to HQ AFCENT it may be that 323 Security Infantry Battalion had the standard infantry weaponry of 1 (NL) Corps units, including the FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm and possibly the Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm.3   

_________________________________________________

   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 1370, Reorg 324 en 327 Infbat tot 324 en 327 Infbevbat d.d. 17 maart 1977. VS 7-205, figuur 2-2. VS 7-265, 10. VS 7-266 1-1 t/m 1-2. 
2. Felius, Einde Oefening, 210. In peacetime Headquarters AFCENT was located in Brunssum. Ibid. 
3. Information on infantry weapons is incomplete and appears contradictory. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, op. cit. lists the M1 Carbine as part of the inventory of 324 and 327 Security Infantry Battalion. This document is from 1977, but the unit organisation type number was still valid in 1985. On the other hand, for the territorial infantry battalion in general VS 7-265 (1985) lists UZI submachine guns, and VS 7-266 (1985) lists "Bazooka or Carl Gustav" and "Bren Gun or FN MAG". It would appear that infantry weaponry was partly modernised without the organisation type number being altered because unit organisation remained the same. 425, 434 and 435 Mobile Security Infantry Company were equipped with UZI, FN FAL and FN MAG because of their NATO 'nuclear' security role. Bevaart et al., Vijftig jaar, 96, 98. In addition, 435 Mobile Security Infantry Company had a number of Carl Gustavs. VS 2-266, 1-5.

<


425 and 434 Mobile Security Infantry Company 1
425 en 434 Infanteriebeveiligingscompagnie Mobiel (425 en 434 Infbevcie Mbl)



CgpDgpinfbevcie mbl [IBC]ciestcogpvzgpeladmbevogpcogpAGpBgp3e Pel2e Pel4e Pel1e Pel

One company staff, four security infantry platoons (1-2-3-4), and one service support platoon. ¶ The company staff, probably comprising a command group and an administration and supply group, had 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and two motorcycles. ¶ Each security infantry platoon comprised a command group with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, and four security infantry groups (A-B-C-D). Each security infantry group had 2 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, of which one with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm on mount. In addition two of these groups each had 1 x mortar 2 inch, which would be mainly used for terrain illumination but could also fire high explosive bombs.2 ¶ The service support platoon had 6 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck, 1 x one-tonne trailer, 2 x one-tonne trailer (water), and 2 x trailer (field kitchen). || The company further had a number of M72 LAWs 66 mm.

Company staff strength: 2/3/4 (9). Platoon command group strength: 1/1/1 (3). Security infantry group strength: 0/1/9 (10). Security infantry platoon strength: 1/5/37 (43). Service support platoon strength: 1/4/20 (25). Company strength: 7/27/172 (206).

In wartime 425 and 434 Mobile Security Infantry Company, part of 1 (NL) Corps Artillery, would secure nuclear deployments of 19 and 129 Field Artillery Battalion. Apart from regular infantry drills their training comprised object and area security (patrolling on foot or in Land Rovers), transport operations, and ambush and exfiltration tactics. They were expected to come up against Warsaw Pact airborne troops and/or special forces such as Soviet spetsnaz units. See also 1 (NL) Corps Artillery.

_________________________________________________
 
1. VR 7-266, 1-4. VS 7-266, 1-6. VS 7-265, 11. VS 30-1, 14-13, 14-15. Additional information kindly provided by J.W. van de Langemheen, conscript sergeant in 425 Mobile Security Infantry Company in 1988 (email 28.12.2013, 31.03.2014). Also thanks to R. Kreuger, conscript soldier 1st class in 434 Mobile Security Infantry Company in 1987 (email 16.04.2014, 19.04.2014).
2. The 2-inch mortar, of World War II vintage, had been replaced with the L9A1 mortar 51 mm by 1988. For some reason the mortars are not mentioned in VS 7-266 (1985); they are however in VR 7-266 (1983) and VS 7-265 (1985).  

<


436 and 437 Mobile Security Infantry Company 1
436 en 437 Infanteriebeveiligingscompagnie Mobiel (436 en 437 Infbevcie Mbl)


ciestinfbevcie mbl [IBC]cogp1e Pel2e Pel3e PelDgpCgpBgpAgpadmbevogpcogpvzgpel4e Pel

One company staff, four security infantry platoons (1-2-3-4), and one service support platoon. Organised like the active-duty counterpart of this unit type, but with partly different (i.e. older) equipment. ¶ The company staff, probably comprising a command group and an administration and supply group, likely had two or three vehicles, perhaps one M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep and one DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, and probably two motorcycles. ¶ Each security infantry platoon comprised a command group with 1 x M38A1, and four security infantry groups (A-B-C-D). Each security infantry group had 2 x DAF YA-126 and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. In addition each security infantry platoon had 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch. ¶ The service support platoon probably had about eight DAF YA-314 or possibly YA-328 three-tonne trucks.

Company staff strength: ± 2/3/4 (9). Platoon command group strength: 1/1/1 (3). Security infantry group strength: 0/1/9 (10). Security infantry platoon strength: 1/5/37 (43). Service support platoon strength: ± 1/4/20 (25). Company strength: 6/26/170 (202).

Like their active-duty counterparts, the mobilisable 436 and 437 Mobile Security Infantry Company would operate under the command of Commander, 1 (NL) Corps Artillery. 436 Mobile Security Infantry Company would secure (the deployment of) NORTHAG Ammunition Supply Point A for nuclear munitions somewhere in the Rear Combat Zone, whilst 437 Mobile Security Infantry Company would be held in reserve as reinforcement/quick reaction force.2 In wartime these units were expected to come up against Warsaw Pact airborne troops and/or special forces such as Soviet spetsnaz units. See further
1 (NL) Corps Artillery.

_________________________________________________
   
1. VR 7-266, 1-4. VS 7-266, 1-6. VS 7-265, 11. VS 30-1, 14-13, 14-15. 
2. Information kindly provided by artillery Lieutenant-Colonel H. Molman (Rtd.) (email 16.06.2014).

<


The Territorial Mobile Security Infantry Company 1
De infanteriebeveiligingscompagnie mobiel (infbevcie mbl)


4e Pelkeukengptgpadmbevogpcogpciestinfbevcie mblAgp2e Pel3e Pel1e PelcogpBgpCgp

One company staff and four rifle platoons (1-2-3-4) (of which one on Short Leave). ¶ The company staff comprised one command group, one administration and supply group, one transport group, and one kitchen group. It had one (civilian) passenger car, 2 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 4 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi, 9 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck, 1 x one-tonne trailer (water), and 3 x Bren lmg .303 inch. ¶ Each rifle platoon comprised one command group and three rifle groups (A-B-C). The command group had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch. Each rifle group had 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch. The company probably had three or four bicycles.
   
Company staff strength: 2/4/24/1 (31). Rifle platoon command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: -/1/8 (9). Rifle platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Company strength: 6/20/140/1 (167).
   
In peacetime the mobile territorial security infantry companies, falling under the Provincial Military Commands/Garrison Commands of National Territorial Command, would periodically perform guard and security duties at Royal Army objects and locations in their province. In wartime they would serve as a mobile reserve for their Provincial Military Commander/Garrison Commander, who might also call upon them to carry out special assignments.
   
Contrary to the mobilisable security infantry companies (see further below), personal armament followed the standard pattern.2 The company staff had 3 x FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm pistol, 18 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, and 9 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm. Each rifle platoon had five pistols, four submachine guns and twenty-five rifles, divided as follows: two pistols, four submachine guns and one rifle in the command group, and one pistol and eight rifles in each rifle group.
   
435 Mobile Security Infantry Battalion had a different, enlarged organisation because of its assignment to
Special Ammunition Storage (SAS) Stöckerbusch in Germany. It would appear that in peacetime the company comprised one, possibly two company staffs and five security infantry platoons of which two on leave, but information is sketchy.3 Platoon organisation was as follows: one command group (1/1/4 (6)) with 1 x M38A1 or ½-tonne Land Rover and 1 x Carl Gustav rclr 84 mm; three rifle groups (-/1/11 (12)) with 1 x DAF YA-314 or YA-328 three-tonne truck and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm each; a replacement group (-/1/6 (7)) would be added in wartime. Each platoon had one tripod mount for FN MAG. Personal armament followed the standard pattern.4

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 212, Organigrammen infbevcie mbl d.d. 3 november 1977Bicycles: NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, Planningsmemorandum verdere uitbreiding NATRES d.d. 10 juni 1983, Bijlage H.
2. Bevaart et al., Vijftig jaar, 123. Website 429 InfBevCie Mobiel RvH (photos, 1984). Website 433 Infanterie Beveiligings Compagnie Mobiel (photos, 1980, 1982).
3. Oosterboer, Kernwapenopslag, 179-180. Bremer, 435 Infanterie Beveiligingscompagnie, 29. Wikipedia, 435 IBC.
4. VS 7-266, 1-5. Bevaart et al., op. cit., 96, 98.

<


The Territorial Light Security Infantry Company 1
De lichte infanteriebeveiligingscompagnie (ltinfbevcie)


keukengptgpadmbevogpcogpciestltinfbevcie3e Pel2e PelcogpCgp1e PelBgpAgp

One company staff and three rifle platoons (1-2-3). ¶ The company staff comprised one command group, one administration and supply group, one transport group, and one kitchen group. It had one (civilian) passenger car, 4 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 2 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 8 x DAF YA-314 or YA-328 three-tonne truck, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer, 2 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi and one field kitchen. ¶ Each rifle platoon comprised one command group and three rifle groups (A-B-C). The command group had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch. Each rifle group had 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch, each platoon had one Bren tripod mount. The company had a number of Energa antitank rifle grenades.
   
Company staff strength: 2/4/22 (28). Rifle platoon command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: -/1/8 (9). Rifle platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Company strength: 5/16/109 (130).
   
The territorial security infantry companies, falling under the Provincial Military Commands/Garrison Commands of National Territorial Command, would secure important objects or areas, or serve as a mobile reserve for their Provincial Military Commander/Garrison Commander. During operations one or more National Reserve platoons might be attached.
   
Personal armament followed the 
standard pattern, except that this unit type still had the M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle .30 inch instead of the FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm. The company staff had 5 x FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm pistol, 14 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, 9 x M1 Garand rifle .30 inch and three flare pistols (probably Geco 26,5 mm). For personal armament in the rifle platoons see The National Reserve Platoon. 

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, Planningsmemorandum verdere uitbreiding NATRES d.d. 10 juni 1983, 9, Bijlage E, Bijlage H. VS 7-265, 12. VS 7-266, 1-4. Bevaart et al., Vijftig jaar, 123, 125. Energa: Dutch military designation ATB nr 4. Each rifle platoon had six rifle grenade launchers for the M1 Garand, probably two per rifle group. NL-HaNA, op. cit., Bijlage E. Dutch designation schiettap, in this document "lanceerinrichting energa". Thanks to Leo Slager of the Stichting Regimentscollectie Technische Troepen for identifying the "lanceerinrichting".

<



The Territorial Heavy Security Infantry Company 1
De zware infanteriebeveiligingscompagnie (zwinfbevcie)


mrgpmrgpmrpelmrgpcogpkeukengptgpadmbevogpcogpciestzwinfbevcie3e Pel2e PelcogpCgp1e PelBgpAgp

One company staff, three rifle platoons (1-2-3) and one mortar platoon. ¶ The company staff comprised one command group, one administration and supply group, one transport group, and one kitchen group. It had one (civilian) passenger car, 2 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 2 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 8 x DAF YA-314 or YA-328 three-tonne truck, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and one field kitchen. ¶ The three rifle platoons were organised and equipped as the rifle platoons of the Territorial Light Security Infantry Company, but they had no antitank rifle grenade launchers. ¶ The mortar platoon comprised one command group and three mortar groups, each group with one mortar 81 mm (probably M1). It had 1 x M38A1, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and 3 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi.
   
Company staff strength: 2/4/20 (26). Rifle platoon command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: -/1/8 (9). Rifle platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Mortar platoon command group strength: 1/2/4 (7). Mortar group strength: -/-/4 (4). Mortar platoon strength: 1/2/16 (19). Company strength: 6/18/123 (147).
 
The territorial security infantry companies, falling under the Provincial Military Commands/Garrison Commands of National Territorial Command, would secure important objects or areas, or serve as a mobile reserve for their Provincial Military Commander/Garrison Commander. During operations one or more National Reserve platoons might be attached.
   
For personal armament see
The Territorial Light Security Infantry Company. In comparison with that unit type, the company staff had three rather than five pistols. The mortar platoon had six pistols, eight submachine guns, and five rifles. 

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, Planningsmemorandum verdere uitbreiding NATRES d.d. 10 juni 1983, 9, Bijlage D. VS 7-265, 12.

<


The Territorial Security Infantry Company 1
De infanteriebeveiligingscompagnie (infbevcie)


4e PelkeukengptgpadmbevogpcogpciestinfbevcieAgp2e Pel3e Pel1e PelcogpBgpCgp

One company staff and four rifle platoons (1-2-3-4). ¶ The company staff comprised one command group, one administration and supply group, one transport group, and one kitchen group. It had one (civilian) passenger car, 1 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 3 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 9 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer, 1 x one-tonne trailer (water). ¶ Each rifle platoon comprised one command group and three rifle groups (A-B-C). The command group had 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch. Each rifle group had 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch, each platoon had one Bren tripod mount. The company had a number of Energa antitank rifle grenades, and probably four bicycles.
   
Company staff strength: 2/5/23 (30). Rifle platoon command group strength: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: -/1/8 (9). Rifle platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34). Company strength: 6/21/139 (166).
   
The territorial security infantry companies, falling under the Provincial Military Commands/Garrison Commands of National Territorial Command, would secure important objects or areas, or serve as a mobile reserve for their Provincial Military Commander/Garrison Commander. During operations one or more National Reserve platoons might be attached.
   
Between 1983 and 1985 twenty-two companies of this unit type were reorganised into 
The Territorial Light Security Infantry Company and The Territorial Heavy Security Infantry Company unit types. The remaining sixteen companies of this unit type were scheduled to be disbanded between 1987 and 1990, in which period forty-eight National Reserve platoons and sixteen National Reserve Company Staffs were to be raised; this was however never realised.2  
 
Personal armament followed the standard pattern, except that this unit type still had the M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle .30 inch instead of the FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm. The company staff had 3 x FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm pistol, 16 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, and 11 x M1 Garand rifle .30 inch. Each rifle platoon had five pistols, two submachine guns and twenty-seven rifles, divided as follows: two pistols, two submachine guns and three rifles in the command group, and one pistol and eight rifles in each rifle group.

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 1365, Reorganisatie Infbevcien d.d. 28 maart 1979. Energa: see The Territorial Light Security Company, footnote 1. Bicycles: NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, Planningsmemorandum verdere uitbreiding NATRES d.d. 10 juni 1983, Bijlage H.
2. NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, op. cit., 6-7. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, November Romeo, 120.

<


The National Reserve Company Staff 1
De compagniesstaf Nationale Reserve (NATRES) (ciestnatres)


keukengptgpadmbevogpcogpciestnatres

One command group, one administration and supply group, one transport group, and one kitchen group. The command group had one (civilian) passenger car, 2 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer. The administration and supply group had 1 x DAF YA-314 or YA-328 three-tonne truck. The transport group had 4 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi and 2 x DAF YA-314 or YA-328. The kitchen group had 1 x DAF YA-314 or YA-328 and one field kitchen.
  
Command group strength: 2/1/4 (7). Administration and supply group strength: -/2/3 (5). Transport group: -/1/6 (7). Kitchen group: -/-/4 (4). Company staff strength: 2/4/17 (23).
   
A National Reserve (NATRES) company staff would command three or more NATRES platoons.
NATRES units were composed of part-time volunteer reservists.
 
Personal armament comprised 3 x
FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm pistol, 12 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, eight rifles, and two flare pistols (probably Geco 26,5 mm). These were divided as follows: three pistols, four submachine guns and two flare pistols in the command group; one submachine gun and four rifles in the administration and supply group; seven submachine guns in the transport group; and one submachine gun and three rifles in the kitchen group. For rifle types see The National Reserve Platoon.

_________________________________________________

   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, Planningsmemorandum verdere uitbreiding NATRES d.d. 10 juni 1983, 9, Bijlage F. VS 7-265, 13. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, op. cit., 83, 112-113, 154, achterzijde stofomslag.

<


The National Reserve Platoon 1
Het peloton Nationale Reserve (NATRES) (pelnatres)


cogpCgppelnatresBgpAgp

One command group and three rifle groups (A-B-C). ¶ The command group had 1 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 1 x M20 or M20B1 Bazooka 3.5 inch, and one bicycle. ¶ Each rifle group had either 1 x Bren lmg .303 inch or 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm, and one bicycle. When equipped with Bren lmg the platoon had one Bren tripod mount. The platoon had a number of Energa antitank rifle grenades.2
   
Command group strengh: 1/1/5 (7). Rifle group strength: -/1/8 (9). Platoon strength: 1/4/29 (34).
   
National Reserve (NATRES) platoons, falling under the
Provincial Military Commands/Garrison Commands of National Territorial Command, would guard important objects and secure relatively small areas prior to, during and after mobilisation, or serve as a mobile reserve for their company commander. They would be placed under command of a NATRES company staff, a territorial security infantry company, or operate directly under their Provincial Military Command/Garrison Command. NATRES units were composed of part-time volunteer reservists.3
   
Personal armament followed the standard pattern with exception of rifles: i
n 1985 more than half of the platoons were still equipped with the M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle .30 inch. The replacement with the FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm, begun in 1978, became problematic when twenty-two new platoons were raised between 1983 and 1988. In 1984 it was decided that only the platoons and nearly all company staffs under the Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg Provincial Military Commands/Garrison Commands would be issued the FAL. All other units would receive or continue to use the M1 Garand, which weapon remained in use until 1987. The replacement of the Bren lmg with FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm began in 1985 but probably took until ±1990.4
 
Personal armament comprised 5 x
FN Browning Hi-Power 9 mm pistol, 14 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm, and fifteen rifles. These were divided as follows: two pistols and five submachine guns in the command group; and one pistol, three submachine guns and five rifles in each rifle group.
 
In wartime means of transport (trucks, bicycles) would be requisitioned or provided from the national stockpile (landsvoorraad)
.5
 
_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.182 inv. nr. 546, Planningsmemorandum verdere uitbreiding NATRES d.d. 10 juni 1983, Bijlage G. VS 7-265, 13. VS 7-266, 1-4.
2. Energa: NL-HaNA, op. cit., Bijlage G, Bijlage H. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, November Romeo, 85. Dutch military designation ATB nr 4. NL-HaNA, loc. cit. shows that the platoon had three rifle grenade launchers (schiettap, in this document "lanceerinrichting energa") for the M1 Garand, probably one per rifle group. As the platoons were at that time (1983) all still supposed to have FN FAL battle rifles, which do not require a separate launcher, it may be that each rifle group had 1 x M1 Garand with "fixed" grenade launcher in order to avoid the accident-prone loading procedure with the FAL; see Ron Knip, Geweergranaten: artillerie voor de infanterist, first published in Armamentaria 38 (Delft, 2003-2004). Thanks to Leo Slager of the Stichting Regimentscollectie Technische Troepen for identifying the "lanceerinrichting".     
3. NL-HaNA, op.cit., 8-9. VS 7-265, loc. cit. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, op. cit., 83, 112-113, 154, achterzijde stofomslag.
4. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, op. cit., 120, 143. It appears that by 1985 there was no shortage in UZI submachine guns 9 mm. NL -HaNA, op. cit., 13, bijlage H, bijvoegsel 1 bij bijlage H. The UZI replaced the M1 Carbine .30 inch, which replacement began in 1978. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, op. cit., 143. Bren lmg: a picture from 1987 shows this weapon still in use with 305 Commando Battalion. Krijger en Elands, Commandotroepen, 103. Also the 1988 issue of VS 2-1351 still has a chapter on the Bren Gun. 
5. Hoffenaar en Schoenmakers, op. cit., 126.

<


The Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery 1
De pantserluchtdoelartilleriebatterij (paluabt)




One battery staff, three armoured antiaircraft artillery platoons (1-2-3) (of which one on Short Leave 2), and one service support platoon. ¶ The battery staff had 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 4 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck, 1 x one-tonne trailer (generator), two motorcycles and 2 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm.3 ¶ During operations the three armoured antiaircraft artillery platoons each comprised a command group, 3 x PRTL self-propelled antiaircraft gun system (with 2 x 35 mm Oerlikon KDA autocannon),4 three Stinger teams, and and one replacement group. The command group had 1 x YPR-765 PRCO-C4 (with M2 hmg .50 inch) and 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover. The three-men Stinger teams each had 1 x FIM-92 Stinger man-portable air defence system with six missiles and 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover with ¼-tonne trailer.5 The replacement group, with 1 x YA-4440, held three extra PRTL/Stinger crews. This group enabled the antiaircraft platoon to maintain operational readiness around the clock through crew rotations.6 ¶ The service support platoon comprised a command group, an administration group, a supply group, a maintenance group, a kitchen group, and a medical group. The command group and the administration group shared 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover. The supply group had 10 x YA-4440, of which one with 1 x one-tonne trailer (water) and six with loader crane (for loading/unloading ammunition); it further had 6 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. The maintenance group had 3 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 3 x YA-4440, of which one with 1 x one-tonne trailer, 1 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi, and 1 x Leopard Bergepanzer 2 Armoured Recovery Vehicle (with 2 x gpmg 7.62 mm). The kitchen group had 1 x YA-4440 with 1 x one-tonne trailer (field kitchen). The medical group had 3 x ¾-tonne Land Rover ambulance.3 || Throughout the battery personal armament consisted mainly of UZI submachine guns.

Battery staff strength: 3/3/14 (20).3 Armoured antiaircraft artillery platoon strength: 2/10/23 (35). Service support platoon strength: 1/9/52 (62).3 Battery strength: 10/42/133 (185).

Total number of antiaircraft weapon systems: 9 x PRTL, 9 x Stinger.

With the introduction of the FIM-92 Stinger man-portable air defence system the old battery organisation was superseded by this unit type. The Stinger, ordered in 1982, was delivered in 1984-1985 and entered service in 1985-1987.7 In 1985 all active-duty batteries were incorporating the Stinger teams, which were partly formed from the PRTL crews in the replacement group. The mobilisable batteries followed in 1986-1987. For the actual state of affairs per battery in 1985 see 101 Antiaircraft Artillery Group.8

For early warning and tactical control the Stinger teams relied on the long-range scanning capacity of the PRTL's search radar, which had been the principal reason to incorporate the Stingers in the PRTL batteries.9 This incorporation was seen as a temporary measure, to be undone when a separate warning and tactical control system for Stinger would become operational.10 Indeed the situation was not ideal, given the different cross-country capabilities of the Leopard 1-based PRTL and the Land Rover-with-trailer.11

The PRTL self-propelled antiaircraft gun was a technologically highly advanced weapon system, the maintenance requirements of which forced the Royal Army through a steep learning curve during the early 1980s, when it became apparent that inefficiencies in the maintenance and materiel support system seriously compromised the operational readiness of the batteries. In 1982 only fifty to sixty percent of the PRTLs in active-duty batteries were deployable, whilst even PRTLs in mobilisation stores were found to be affected, with a mere eighty-five percent of these being deployable. From December 1984 on several measures were put in place to improve the situation, after which the system's operational readiness began to climb back to acceptable levels: seventy-five percent of PRTLs in active units and about ninety to a hundred percent of PRTLs in mobilisation stores were reported deployable at the end of 1985. In 1986 the overall operational readiness of the systems was at eighty percent.12

_________________________________________________

1. VS 44-32, I-4 t/m I-7, III-30. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 497, Memorandum Reorganisatie Luchtverdediging d.d. 14 juli 1982, Bijlagen C en D.
2. With the exception of 41 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery of which all three armoured antiaircraft artillery platoons were on active duty.
3. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 497, op. cit. Given the date of this planning document this information may not be entirely accurate for 1985.
4. PRTL (pantserrups tegen luchtdoelen) was the Dutch military designation for the Dutch version of the West German Leopard 1-based Gepard self-propelled antiaircraft gun system. See for instance VS 2-1351, 10-28 t/m 10-29. For an extensive description see Foss, Armour and Artillery, 514-515.
5. Six missiles: 4 x Stinger Basic Weapon Round and 2 x Stinger Basic Missile Round. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, Planningsmemorandum Invoering Stinger Basic d.d. 30 september 1983, 7. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, Luchtdoelartillerie, 212.
6. The Stinger teams and their equipment were administratively part of the replacement group, which in total comprised six commanders PRTL/Stinger team, six gunners PRTL/Stinger, three chauffeurs PRTL, three chauffeurs Land Rover and one chauffeur for the group's YA-4440.
Thus all in all nine PRTL/Stinger crews, comprising a commander and a gunner, would rotate via the replacement group, alternately manning a PRTL, operating as part of a Stinger team, and resting. Each crew was in principle linked to a PRTL and a Stinger team. The chauffeurs PRTL and Land Rover were not interchangeable, but there was an extra chauffeur for each PRTL. VS 44-32, III-30. Ballegooij, Pantserluchtdoelartillerie, 3.20, 3.26. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 222.
7. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, op. cit, 29. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 211. All in all 486 Stingers were ordered for the Royal Army: 324 x Stinger Basic Weapon Round and 162 x Stinger Basic Missile Round. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, loc. cit. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, loc. cit. 
8. The Royal Army official order of battle per 1 July 1985 shows all Stinger teams as being already in place, both in terms of the batteries' personnel strengths and their organisation type number. NIMH 430, inv. nr. 54 (Slagorde KL stand 1 juli 1985). Those organisation type numbers however refer to tables of organisation and equipment (organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten, OTAS) that were updated in advance of the actual introduction of the weapon. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, op. cit., 10.
9. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 399. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 212.   
10. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 561, op. cit., 6. HTK 1986-1987, kamerstuknr. 19700 X ondernr. 7, 2. In 1985 the acquisition of such a system, referred to as WAGEL (Waarschuwings- en gevechtsleidingssysteem Stinger) was still subject of study. At that time its introduction was foreseen for 1990-1991. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 642, Waarschuwings- en gevechtsleidingssysteem Stinger, Bijlage 1 behorende bij aantekening CG  nr. CG 850725/Conf  "Aanbieding DMP-B document." It further appears that the Stinger teams were still part of the armoured antiaircraft artillery batteries in 1992. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, loc. cit.    
11. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 222. 
12. HTK 1985-1986, kamerstuknr. 19200 X ondernr. 31. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, Met de blik, 358, 398. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 209-210. Hooiveld, Pruttels paraat, 4-7. Equipment was considered deployable (operationally ready) when combat-ready within twelve hours. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 209. For a brief outline of problems and improvements in the materiel support system see Corps Logistic Command, Reorganisations 1984-1990s.

<


The Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battery (old organisation) 1
De pantserluchtdoelartilleriebatterij (oude organisatie) (paluabt)



paluabtcogpgnkgpvzgpelkeukengponhgp2e Pelcogpbtst3e Pel1e Pels PRTL (3x)admgpbevogpverwplg (3x)verwgp

One battery staff, three armoured antiaircraft artillery platoons (1-2-3), one replacement group, and one service support platoon. ¶ The organisation and equipment of the battery staff and the service support platoon were very similar to those of the superseding organisation type. ¶ The three armoured antiaircraft artillery platoons (1-2-3) each comprised a command group and 3 x PRTL self-propelled antiaircraft gun system (with 2 x 35 mm Oerlikon KDA autocannon). The command group had 1 x YPR-765 PRCO-C4 (with M2 hmg .50 inch) and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover. The replacement group comprised three replacement teams, each with 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck. During operations each replacement team would be assigned to one of the armoured antiaircraft artillery platoons, enabling them to maintain operational readiness around the clock through crew rotations.2 || Throughout the battery personal armament consisted mainly of UZI submachine guns.

Battery staff strength: 3/2/12 (17). Armoured antiaircraft artillery platoon strength: 1/4/9 (14). Replacement group strength: -/9/15 (24). Service support platoon strength: 1/8/57 (66). Battery strength: 7/31/111 (149).

Total number of antiaircraft weapon systems: 9 x PRTL.

This organisation type was superseded by a new battery organisation that incorporated Stinger teams, which were partly formed from the PRTL crews in the replacement group. In 1985 only the three mobilisable batteries of 35 Armoured Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (RIM) still retained the old organisation, which is why this unit type is shown as mobilisable here. In case of mobilisation these batteries would probably have received some sort of crash course in the use of the FIM-92 Stinger; see 101 Antiaircraft Artillery Group, footnote 11.

_________________________________________________

1. VS 44-39, 1-1 t/m 1-2, 4-1t/m 4-2, 7-1, 7-4. Van Randwijk, Gemechaniseerde luchtdoelartillerie, 163-164.
2. The three replacement teams each comprised three commanders PRTL, three gunners PRTL, one chauffeur PRTL and one chauffeur for the team's YA-4440. Each replacement crew (commander and chauffeur PRTL) would in principle be linked to a PRTL. Thus each platoon had a replacement crew for each PRTL and one replacement chauffeur PRTL. VS 44-39, 7-12. Van Randwijk, loc. cit.

<


The Light Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion 1
De afdeling lichte luchtdoelartillerie (afdltlua)


meteogp (2x)vm M55 .50 inchrdrvulgps 40 mm L70 tl (3x)wrngpbtstadmbevogpcogpcogpbtstcogprdrgponhgp2e Gevbt1e GevbtkeukengpgnkpelSsvbtafdstAbtmeteo/rdrpelCbtBbtonhpelvbdpelbevopelafdltlua paluabtbtstvzgpelcogpbevogpadmgpkeukengpgnkgp2e Pels PRTL (3x)cogpverwgpstingerplg (3x)onhgp1e Pel3e Pel

One staff and support battery and three field batteries (A-B-C). ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff, a meteorological and radar platoon, a signals platoon, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the battery staff. The meteorological and radar platoon, comprising a command group, two meteorological groups and one radar group, held 1 x HSA L4/5 antiaircraft fire control radar in reserve.2 ¶ The three field batteries each comprised a battery staff and two firing batteries (1-2). The battery staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, a maintenance group, and a kitchen group. Each firing battery comprised a command group, a radar fire control group with 1 x HSA L4/5; 3 x Bofors 40L70 antiaircraft autocannon 40 mm; 1 x M55 quadruple antiaircraft hmg .50 inch for the battery's own close proximity air defence; and a (forward) observation group. The firing battery's three 40L70s were controlled by the HSA L4/5, to which they were linked by cable.

Staff and support battery strength: 18/25/98/2 (143). Field battery strength: 8/21/117 (146). Battalion strength: 42/88/449/2 (581).

Total number of antiaircraft weapon systems: 18 x Bofors 40L70, 6 x M55 Quad .50.

Though the battalion did not include dedicated replacement groups like the armoured antiaircraft artillery batteries, it would similarly operate on a twenty-four hour basis by working in shifts.3

By 1985 the Bofors 40L70 antiaircraft gun and the HSA L4/5 fire control radar were at the end of their life span.4 The last active-duty battalions (15 and 25) had been disbanded in 1983 because of the high exploitation costs and degrading performance of the obsolescent main equipment,5 which meant that filling the three remaining mobilisable battalions (45, 115 and 125) with able personnel would become problematic after 1989. In 1986 it was decided that the three mobilisable battalions would be replaced by one active-duty battery and two mobilisable batteries, each battery equipped with eighteen modernised 40L70s, nine HSA Flycatcher antiaircraft fire control radar systems and nine Stingers. The active-duty battery became operational in 1991.6   

_________________________________________________

1. VS 44-26, 1-3, 6-2, 6-3, 7-1, 7-2. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, Luchtdoelartillerie, 187, 189. De Rochemont, Rooding en Van der Veer, Heden en toekomst, 234-235.
2. The Dutch military designation of the HSA L4/5 was KL/MSS-3012.
3. VS 44-26, 5-12, 7-11. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 189.
4. The 40L70 (in service since 1958) in terms of rate of fire, the HSA L4/5 (in service since 1966) in terms of radar performance, technical reliability and resistance against enemy electronic warfare measures. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 170, 205, 212.
5. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 502, Planningsmemorandum Reorganisatie Luchtverdediging d.d. 14 juli 1982, Deel II. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, Met de blik, 399. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 205.
6. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op.cit., 402. Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, op. cit., 212-213. The three antiaircraft batteries were numbered 105 (active), 115 (RIM) and 125 (mobilisable). Klinkert, Otten en Plasmans, ibid.

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The Field/Horse Artillery Battalion M109A2/A3 1
De afdeling veld- /rijdende artillerie M109A2/A3 (afdva/afdra)


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One staff and support battery and three field batteries (A-B-C) (of which one on Short Leave).2 ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff with 2 x M18 FADAC gun direction computer, a terrain survey group, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, the brigade liaison group, three battalion liaison groups,3 nine forward observation groups,4 and the battery staff. ¶ The three field batteries each comprised a battery staff, a signals group, a terrain survey group, and a firing battery. The battery staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. The firing battery comprised a command group, 6 x M109A2 or A3 self-propelled howitzer 155 mm (with M2 hmg .50 inch), and an ammunition group. || The battalion's inventory further included 105 x M72 LAW 66 mm for self-defence.

Staff and support battery strength: 19/40/153/2 (214). Field battery strength: 4/17/95 (116). Battalion strength: 31/91/438/2 (562).

Total number of guns: 18.

With the exception of the mobilisable 44 Field Artillery Battalion, each of the M109-equipped battalions was organic to an armoured (infantry) brigade, for which they would mainly perform direct-support missions. 44 Field Artillery Battalion was part of the Corps Artillery. It was organised as described above, except that its staff and support battery had only one liaison group and two forward observation groups. During operations a possible role for this battalion would have been to reinforce the direct-supporting fires of other (brigade) artillery units.

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 242, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) afdelingen veldartillerie M109, 1978-1979. VS 6-20/1, 3-3 t/m 3-4. VS 6-101, 1-1 t/m 1-2. VS 6-140, 6-A-1 t/m 6-A-3. VS 17-145, 1-8. Hoffenaar, Van Hoof en De Moor, Vuur in beweging, 238-239. Schoenmaker en Van Hoof, Rijdende Artillerie, 156-157, 182. Thanks to Major D. van Zuidam (Rtd.) of the Netherlands Artillery Museum, captain of the Staff and Support Battery of 44 Field Artillery Battalion in 1984.
2. In the two battalions affiliated to the Horse Artillery Corps (11 Horse Artillery Battalion and 13 Horse Artillery Battalion), the three batteries were numbered 1-2-3 rather than A-B-C. Schoenmaker en Van Hoof, op. cit., 185, 192, 193, 194.
3. One for each of the brigade's three (tank or armoured infantry) battalions.
4. Each three of which would be assigned to one of the brigade's three (tank or armoured infantry) battalions under operational circumstances, one to each squadron/company staff. VS 17-145, 1-1 t/m 1-2. Schoenmaker en Van Hoof, op. cit., 191-192. Forward observation groups assigned to YP-408 equipped armoured infantry battalions operated in Land Rovers, the others in YPR-765 PRCO C5s (with M2 hmg .50 inch). The Land Rover-equipped groups would transition to YPR-765 PRCO C5 concurrent with the YP-408 battalions' transition to YPR-765 in 1987-1989. Schoenmaker en Van Hoof, op. cit., 192. Website DAF YP-408 Forgotten Hero, Pantserinfanteriebataljons YP-408.

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The Field Artillery Battalion M110A2 / M107 1
De afdeling veldartillerie M110A2 / M107 (afdva)


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One staff and support battery and three field batteries (A-B-C) (of which one on Short Leave). ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff with 2 x M18 FADAC gun direction computer, a terrain survey group, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, two liaison groups, and the battery staff. ¶ The three field batteries each comprised a battery staff, a signals group, a terrain survey group, and a firing battery. The battery staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. The firing battery comprised a command group, 4 x M110A2 self-propelled howitzer 8 inch or 4 x M107 self-propelled gun 175 mm, and an ammunition group. || The battalion's inventory further included 90 x M72 LAW 66 mm for self-defence.

Staff and support battery strength (M107-equipped battalion): 16/38/141/2 (197). Staff and support battery strength (M110A2-equipped battalion): 16/38/146/2 (202). Field battery strength: 4/15/83 (102). Battalion strength (M107): 28/83/390/2 (503). Battalion strength (M110A2): 28/83/395/2 (508).

Total number of guns: 12.

This unit type was exclusively found in the Corps Artillery and would mainly be tasked with general-support missions and general-support reinforcing missions, often at divisional level. Only 107 Field Artillery Battalion was equipped with the M107 in 1985; it transitioned to M110A2 in 1986.2 It was also the only active-duty unit of this type.

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 242, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) afdelingen veldartillerie M107, 1978. VS 6-20/1, 3-3. VS 6-101, 1-1 t/m 1-2. VS 6-140, 6-A-1 t/m 6-A-3. Hoffenaar, Van Hoof en De Moor, Vuur in beweging, 238-239. Schoenmaker en Van Hoof, Rijdende Artillerie, 156-157, 182. Additional information kindly provided by Rob Meinen of 107afdva.nl (email 20.05.2012).
2. Langhenkel, Veger en Ueberschaer, FOFA, 577. Website 107 Afdva, Geschiedenis.

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The Field Artillery Battalion M114A1 1
De afdeling veldartillerie M114A1 (afdva)




One staff and support battery and three field batteries (A-B-C). ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff, a terrain survey group, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, one liaison group, two forward observation groups, and the battery staff. ¶ The three field batteries each comprised a battery staff, a signals group, a terrain survey group, and a firing battery. The battery staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. The firing battery comprised a command group, 6 x M114A1 towed howitzer 155 mm, and an ammunition group. || The battalion's inventory further included 105 x M72 LAW 66 mm for self-defence.

Staff and support battery strength: 18/39/169/2 (228). Field battery strength: 4/17/99 (120). Battalion strength: 30/90/466/2 (588).

Total number of guns: 18.

With the exception of 54 Field Artillery Battalion all M114-equipped battalions were part of the Corps Artillery, where they would mainly be tasked with reinforcing direct-support missions of other artillery units. 54 Field Artillery Battalion was organic to 101 Infantry Brigade, for which it would mainly perform direct-support missions. As such its staff and support included one brigade liaison group, four battalion liaison groups and twelve forward observation groups.2

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 252, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) afdelingen veldartillerie M114, 1978. Ibid., OTAS 54 Afdeling Veldartillerie, 1974, 1977, 1978. VS 6-20/1, 3-4. VS 6-101, 1-1 t/m 1-2. VS 6-140, 6-A-1 t/m 6-A-3. From the aforementioned OTAS documents (TO&E) it appears that this unit type did not have FADACs, which is also implied in NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 642, Memorandum Organisatie Artillerie Vuursysteem Eerste Legerkorps d.d. 18 juli 1985, I.7.
2. NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 643, Planningsmemorandum Legerplan 162 d.d. 1 augustus 1985, 7. The OTAS documents regarding 54 Field Artillery Battalion mentioned in the previous footnote show that, at least at that time (mid to late 1970s), nine of the twelve forward observation groups were part of the field batteries (three per battery).

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19 Field Artillery Battalion, Nuclear Deployed 1
19 Afdeling Veldartillerie, nucleair ontplooid (19 Afdva)


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One staff and support battery and two field batteries (A-B). ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff, a terrain survey group, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, two liaison groups, and the battery staff. ¶ The two field batteries each comprised a battery staff, a signals group, a terrain survey group, a fire direction group with 1 x M18 FADAC gun direction computer, two howitzer sections (1-2), and an assembly and transport group. The battery staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, a maintenance group, and a kitchen group. The two howitzer sections each comprised a command group, 2 x M110A2 self-propelled howitzer 8 inch, and an ammunition group. ¶ During nuclear deployment the following units would be placed under the command of the battalion: 425 Mobile Infantry Security Company,2 23rd US Army Field Artillery Detachment (23th USAFAD), the Royal Army Detachment to 23rd US Army Field Artillery Detachment, two radio relay detachments and one Military Constabulary detachment. || The battalion's inventory included 90 x M72 LAW 66 mm for self-defence.

Staff and support battery strength: 17/33/132/2 (184). Field battery strength: 5/21/104 (130). Battalion strength: 27/75/340/2 (444).

Total number of guns: 8.

The aforementioned units reinforcing the battalion during nuclear deployment would be distributed over the batteries. Their tasks would include providing area security; managing and securing (the relocation of ) Field Storage Sites (FSS) for the US Army W33 nuclear artillery shells; maintaining communications with 1 (NL) Corps Artillery staff (under whose operational command a nuclear mission would likely be executed 3); and traffic control. The warhead(s) would be hand-assembled in the field and adjusted to the required yield. The W33 is reported to have existed in a low yield and a high yield modification; 5 to 10 kilotons and 40 kilotons respectively.4

During non-nuclear deployment the battalion would mainly be tasked with general-support and general-support reinforcing missions, mostly at divisional level. The two howitzer sections would then likely be combined in one regular firing battery, comprising a command group, eight howitzers and an ammunition group.5 

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 243, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) 19 Afdeling Veldartillerie, 1979. VS 6-20/1, 3-3. VS 6-101, A-1-1 t/m A-1-2. Additional information kindly provided by artillery Lieutenant-Colonel H. Molman (Rtd.) (various emails, June 2014).
2. Dorrestijn, Vuur geëindigd, 168. Hoffenaar, Van Hoof en De Moor, Vuur in beweging, 160. Hoksbergen en Kroon, Nederlandse Artillerie, 88-90.
3. VS 6-20/1, 3-3. VS 6-101, A-1-1. Dorrestijn, op. cit., 183. See also 1 (NL) Corps Artillery, Dual Capable Artillery.
4. The W33 shell to be used by 19 Field Artillery Battalion: Cochran, Arkin and Hoenig, Nuclear Weapons, 47. Hoffenaar, Van Hoof en De Moor, op. cit., 159. Website 8th Missile Detachment, 23rd Missile Detachment. The reported yields of the W33 differ somewhat; see for instance Cochran, Arkin and Hoenig, loc. cit.; Mechtersheimer und Barth, Militarisierungsatlas, 341; website The Nuclear Weapon Archive, Complete List of All U.S. Nuclear Weapons. For reference: the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 had a yield of 15 to 16 kilotons. Website The Nuclear Weapon Archive, loc. cit.
5. VS 6-101, A-1-1, punt 7.

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129 Field Artillery Battalion, Nuclear Deployed 1
129 Afdeling Veldartillerie, nucleair ontplooid (129 Afdva)


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One staff and support battery and two launching batteries (A-B) operating six MGM-52C Lance surface-to-surface missile systems. ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff, a signals group, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the battery staff. ¶ The two launching batteries each comprised a battery staff, a terrain survey platoon, a fire direction group with 1 x HP 9825A programmable calculator and 1 x Monroe 1920 scientific calculator; three launching platoons (1-2-3), and one assembly and transport platoon. The battery staff comprised a command group, a signals group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. The three launching platoons each comprised a command group and one launching group with 1 x M752 Self-Propelled Launcher (SPL). The assembly and transport platoon comprised a command group, three assembly and transport groups, and one transport group for the custodial 8th US Army Field Artillery Detachment. Each assembly and transport group had 1 x M688 Loader-Transporter (LT), 3 x DAF YA-5441 six-tonne truck 2 and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover. In addition the platoon had 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck capable of carrying two warhead sections with fins. ¶ During nuclear deployment the following units would be placed under the command of the battalion: 434 Mobile Security Infantry Company,3 8th US Army Field Artillery Detachment (8th USAFAD), two contact teams of a maintenance platoon, two or three radio relay detachments, and one Military Constabulary detachment. || The battalion's inventory included 90 x M72 LAW 66 mm for self-defence.

Staff and support battery strength: 14/33/118/2 (167). Launching battery strength: 8/24/89 (121). Battalion strength: 30/81/296/2 (409).

Total number of Lance systems: 6, plus 1 x M752 SPL in reserve.4

The aforementioned units reinforcing the battalion during nuclear deployment would be distributed over the batteries. Their tasks would include providing area security; managing and securing (the relocation of ) Field Storage Sites (FSS) for the US Army W70 nuclear warheads; transporting, storing and and securing nuclear ammunition not under the control of the battalion and establishing an Ammunition Supply Point (ASP) in the field; providing Lance-specific electronic maintenance support; maintaining communications with 1 (NL) Corps Artillery staff (under whose operational command a nuclear mission would likely be executed 5); and traffic control.

The battalion was able to carry along a total of forty-eight missiles: twelve in assembled state in the Loader-Transporters 6 and the components of a further thirty-six missiles loaded in the six-tonne trucks. Two types of warhead sections were available: the M251 (conventional, with high explosive submunitions) and the M234 (nuclear). The latter would incorporate the W70 nuclear warhead, which is reported to have had three yield settings in the range of 1-100 kilotons.7 The nuclear warhead section(s) would be hand-assembled in the field and adjusted to the required yield.

During non-nuclear deployment the battalion would be tasked with general-support missions.

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 1376, plan-OTAS (organisatietabel en autorisatiestaat) 129 Afdeling Veldartillerie, 1977. VS 6-42, 1-1 t/m 2-6, 4-1, 4-6 t/m 4-6a, 5-4, 6-1, Bijlagen A, C, D, E. Dorrestijn, Vuur geëindigd, Hoofdstuk 6. Loukes, Afdeling Lance, passim. Additional information kindly provided by artillery Lieutenant-Colonel H. Molman (Rtd.) (various emails, June 2014).
2. For some reason the YA-5441, categorised as a five-tonne truck by DAF, is labelled a six-tonne truck in both army field manual VS 6-42 and the article by Loukes (see footnote 1); compare for instance with Foss and Gander, Military Logistics, 457-458.
3. Dorrestijn, op. cit., 168. Hoffenaar, Van Hoof en De Moor, Vuur in beweging, 160. Hoksbergen en Kroon, Nederlandse Artillerie, 88-90.
4. Dorrestijn, loc. cit.
5. VS 6-20/1, 3-3. Dorrestijn, op. cit., 183. See also 1 (NL) Corps Artillery, Dual Capable Artillery.
6. VS 6-42, 6-1.
7. Cochran, Arkin and Hoenig, Nuclear Weapons, 72-73. Mechtersheimer und Barth, Militarisierungsatlas, 335. Website The Nuclear Weapon Archive, Complete List of All U.S. Nuclear Weapons. For reference: the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 had a yield of 15 to 16 kilotons. Website The Nuclear Weapon Archive, loc. cit.

<


101 Artillery Survey Battalion 1
101 Artilleriemeetafdeling (101 Ama)


 
One staff and support battery and one terrain survey battery (Tmd). ¶ The staff and support battery comprised the battalion staff, a meteorological platoon with 4 x QR-MX-2 Sirocco meteorological radar station;2 three mortar locating radar platoons (of which two mobilisable),3 each with 2 x AN/TPQ-36 weapon locating radar;4 three sound ranging platoons (of which two mobilisable),3 each with 1 x Plessey sound ranging system;5 a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon and the battery staff. ¶ The terrain survey battery comprised a battery staff, one base terrain survey platoon (Btm) and two terrain survey platoons (Tm). The battery staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, and a maintenance group. The base terrain survey platoon would maintain the common grid in the corps sector, the two terrain survey platoons refining the common grid as needed. || For self-defence the battalion's inventory included 45 x M72 LAW 66 mm.

Staff and support battery strength: 23/75/253 (351). Terrain survey battery strength: 7/45/117 (169). Battalion strength: 30/120/370 (520).

In wartime the battalion would not operate as a singe unit but, for the larger part, serve as a grouping of artillery survey assets for 1 (NL) Corps Artillery. As needed, mortar locating radar platoons, sound ranging platoons and terrain survey platoons would be detached to the field artillery groups, under whose command they would then operate. For the radar groups of the mortar locating platoons it was also possible to be attached to a field artillery battalion. The meteorological platoon and the base terrain survey platoon would normally remain under command of the battalion.6

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 250, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) 101 Artilleriemeetafdeling, 1977-1978. Ibid., inv. nr. 1694, Memorandum Realisatie Legerplan 60H d.d. 16 juli 1978. VS 6-20/1, 3-4 t/m 3-5, 3-7. Hoffenaar, Van Hoof en De Moor, Vuur in beweging, 235, 239, 241. Hoksbergen en Kroon, Nederlandse Artillerie, 93-94. Pretty, Weapon Systems, 260, 505-506. Ariaans, 101 Artillerie Meetafdeling, 182-192.
2. Dutch military designation KL/MMQ-5420.
3. The battalion largely filled its own mobilisable subunits and positions under the GRIM system. NIMH 205A/10, Aflossing van mobilisabele eenheden en -aanvullingen d.d. 11 november 1983. Ibid., d.d. 17 juni 1985. One mobilisable sound ranging platoon was filled under the RIM system (NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 1694, op. cit.), which was probably also the case for one of the two mobilisable mortar locating radar platoons. GRIM was a variant of RIM, the Dutch acronym for Direct Influx into Mobilisable Units (Rechtstreekse Instroming in Mobilisabele Eenheden); GRIM meant "Largely RIM" (Grotendeels Rechtstreekse Instroming in Mobilisabele Eenheden). For an survey of the Army's unit filling and reserve system see Gijsbers, Blik in de smidse, 2222-2231; Selles, Personele vulling; Berghuijs, Opleiding, 14-23. In English: Isby and Kamps, Armies, 341-343; Sorell, Je Maintiendrai: The Royal Netherlands Army within the Alliance, 94-96; Van Vuren, The Royal Netherlands Army Today, Military Review April 1982, 23-28. 
4. Dutch military designation KL/TPQ-6098.
5. Sound Ranging Link No. 2 Mk 1; Dutch military designation KL/GND-4914.
6. VS 6-20/1, 3-2, 3-4 t/m 3-5.

<


The Armoured Engineer Company 1
De pantsergeniecompagnie (pagncie)


btmpeltmpelbtstgmdpel (2x)morpelbtstmeteopelgmdpeltmpelSsvbt101 AmacogponhgpadmbevogpTmdbtmorpel (2x)onhpelafdstbevopel  
One company staff, three armoured engineer platoons (1-2-3) (of which one on Short Leave) and one support platoon (Ost). ¶ The company staff comprised a command group with 1 x M577A1 and 2 x ½-tonne Land Rover, a reconnaissance group with 1 x M113A1 (with M2 hmg .50 inch), an administration and supply group, a maintenance group, and a kitchen group; the last three of these groups each had 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch. ¶ Each armoured engineer platoon comprised a command group and three armoured engineer groups (A-B-C). The command group had 1 x M113A1 (with M2 hmg .50 inch) and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover. The armoured engineer groups, each mounted in an M113A1 (with M2 hmg .50 inch), had 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm each. ¶ The support platoon comprised a command group, a tank bridge group (Tkbr), a tankdozer group (Tkdoz), a mechanical equipment group (Mu)2 and an equipment group (Uitr). The tank bridge group had 2 x Leopard Biber armoured vehicle-launched bridge, each with two spans, of which one carried on a semi-trailer truck (DAF, YT-616 or a later model from the YA-2300 series), and 2 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. The tankdozer group had 2 x Leopard Pionierpanzer 1 armoured engineering vehicle (with 2 x gpmg 7.62 mm).3 The mechanical equipment group held 2 x International Hough H65C wheel loader, the equipment group held 1 x DAF YEE-2000 SB treadway bridge.4 || Besides various engineer equipment the company's inventory further included three ten-tonne trucks of the DAF YA-2300 series, ten four-tonne trucks of the DAF YA-4440 series, three motorcycles, four inflatable reconnaissance boats for three to four men, and 90 x M72 LAW 66 mm.5

Armoured engineer platoon command group strength: 1/1/3 (5). Armoured engineer platoon group strength: -/1/11 (12). Armoured engineer platoon strength: 1/4/36 (41). Company strength: 7/27/182 (216).

Each armoured (infantry) brigade included a company of this type, capable of light combat engineering. In wartime it would likely not operate as a single unit, but have platoons and/or groups placed under the command of the brigade's tank or armoured infantry battalions.6 The armoured engineer company was able to fight as an armoured infantry company, though this was only to happen if the brigade would be "threatened in its existence" during battle.7 Armoured engineer platoons or groups attached to manoeuvre units however would be more likely to become involved in combat situations. Personal armament in each armoured engineer platoon comprised 30 x UZI submachine gun 9 mm and 93 x FN FAL battle rifle 7.62 mm.

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 266, organisatietabel en autorisatiestaat (OTAS) pantsergeniecompagnie , 1978-1979. VR 5-157, 2, 4, 10. VS 17-145, 1-9. Bremer, 41 Pantsergeniecompagnie, 4-6.
2. By 1985 the designation of this subunit may have changed to 'construction machine group' (bouwmachinegroep). Elands et al., 250 jaar, 234.
3. Up to 1983 11, 12, 51 and 53 Armoured Engineer Company had been equipped with Centurion AVLBs and AEVs, which were replaced by Leopard vehicles in 1983-1985. It may be that in 1985 Centurions were still in use, if so probably by 51 and/or 53 Armoured Engineer Company. SSA-MvD, CLAS/BLS 7486, Planningsmemorandum Instroming Leopard 1V, Leopard 2 (etc.) d.d. 29 december 1982, 16-17. HTK 1982-1983, kamerstuknr. 17600 X ondernr. 2, 27. Anonymus, Eenhoorn Brigade, 33. Ruys, Centuriontank, 234. Smit, Leopard 1, 53. The Dutch Centurion AVLB was a converted Mk 5 fitted with an M48 scissors bridge. Likewise the Dutch Centurion AEV was a converted Mk 5 fitted with the dozer blade of an M48 tankdozer; the 20-pounder gun was removed in the 1970s once the ammunition stocks were depleted. Ruys, op. cit., 227-228.
4. Dutch designation rijsporenbrug. Comprising two separate treadways, each transported on a two-wheeled trailer. Designed by major H.C. Camman in the mid-1960s, it had a maximum span of twelve metres and a military load class of 20 (MLC 20). VS 2-1350-E1, 17-1 t/m 17-6. Foss and Gander, Military Logistics, 156. Elands et al., op. cit., 193-194.
5. Alternatively, some units probably still had a number of DAF YA-126 one-tonne trucks and/or DAF YA-314 (dump) trucks in use.
6. Bremer, op. cit., 4. Elands et al., op.cit., 268. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, Met de blik, 384. Elands, Van Gils en Schoenmaker, Geschiedenis 1 Divisie, 230.
7. VR 5-157, 33-34.

<


The Engineer Battalion 1
Het geniebataljon (gnbat)


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One staff and support company and three engineer field companies (A-B-C) (of which one on Short Leave 2). ¶ The staff and support company comprised the battalion staff, a reconnaissance group, a signals group, a construction machine group, a medium girder bridge group,3 a water supply platoon, a supply platoon, a maintenance platoon, a medical platoon, and the company staff. ¶ The three field engineer companies each comprised a company staff and three engineer field platoons (1-2-3). The company staff comprised a command group, an administration and supply group, a maintenance group, a kitchen group, and a support group (Ost). Each engineer field platoon comprised a command group and three engineer groups (A-B-C). || Vehicle types used included DAF YA-4440 four-tonne trucks and Land Rovers. Engineer equipment was limited. Apart from a DAF YEE-2000 SB treadway bridge the battalion had no bridging materiel in its wartime organisation.4 Armament was likewise limited and merely intended for self-defence, comprising FN MAG gpmgs 7.62 mm, M2 hmgs .50 inch and M72 LAWs 66 mm.

Staff and support company strength: 16/38/168/2 (224). Engineer field company strength: 5/17/128 (150). Battalion strength: 31/89/552/2 (674).

The engineer battalion was personnel-heavy and had, as said, only limited engineer equipment. For most operations it would rely on the support of specialist engineer units such as bridge, construction, or dump truck companies (see 101 and 201 Engineer Combat Group). Its light armament and lack of cross-country capable or armoured vehicles made the engineer battalion unsuitable for combat engineering or operating beyond the road network. It would be able to operate as infantry but was to be used as such only in situations of utmost emergency.

_________________________________________________

1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 263, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) staf, staf- en verzorgingscompagnieën 11 en 41 Geniebataljon, 1976. VS 5-154, hoofdstuk I t/m III. It will be noted that the source material for this section, dating from 1976 and 1972 respectively, is not exactly contemporary; I have as yet not been able to retrieve better data. It is apparent however that the general layout and role of the engineer battalion did not change before the end of the Cold War. See for instance Elands et. al., 250 jaar, hoofdstuk 5; Dekker, Dorrestijn en Visser, Geniesteun, 488.
2. In September 1986 the Short Leave company of 41 Engineer Battalion was placed on active-duty. See 101 Engineer Combat Group, note c.
3. Present only in peacetime and only in 11 and 41 Engineer Battalion; would go to 104 Medium Girder Bridge Company in wartime. See 101 Engineer Combat Group, note g.
4. For a description of the treadway bridge system see The Armoured Engineer Company, footnote 4.

<


The Diver Platoon 1
Het duikerpeloton (dkrpel)


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One command group, one diver group (dkr), and four underwater reconnaissance groups (owv) of which probably one on Short Leave. Each underwater reconnaissance group comprised two underwater reconnaissance teams. Apart from various diving equipment, which included rather sophisticated wireless underwater communication devices, the platoon had a number of DAF YA-4440 four-tonne trucks (five, possibly more) and probably a number of Land Rovers and (small) boats. Personal armament appears to have consisted mainly of UZI submachine guns.

Diving group strength: 0/1/8 (9). Underwater reconnaissance team strength: 0/1/4 (5). Platoon strength: 1/11/44 (56). 

The underwater reconnaissance teams would reconnoitre underwater locations in advance of deep fording operations or amphibious crossings, clearing obstacles and mines, if necessary with explosives. They used light, scuba-type diving equipment and were able to operate independently. The diver group, using heavier, surface-supplied diving equipment, would support engineer operations in the Corps Rear Area, predominantly bridging operations and the emplacing or clearing of obstacles, using equipment like underwater cutting torches and heavy explosives.

Requirements for military divers were, and are, demanding. Selection and training of personnel were such that out of a hundred volunteering conscripts a mere ten would end up serving their active-duty period with 108 Diver Platoon. This unit had one mobilisable counterpart, 109 Diver Platoon (RIM).

_________________________________________________

1. Elands et. al., 250 jaar, 259-260. Anonymous, 108 Duikerpeloton, 6-8. Website VOPET, genieduikers (now defunct). The presence of a command group, not indicated in these publications, was confirmed by D. Ramerman, commander of 108 Diver Platoon from 1988 to 1990 (email 12.08.2014).  

<


901 Torpedo Company 1
901 Torpedistencompagnie (901 Torpcie)

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One company staff, one vessel platoon (vatgn), two mobile diver platoons (dkr), one salvage platoon (berg), and one maintenance platoon. ¶ The company staff comprised one command group, one administration and supply group, and one kitchen group. The command group had 1 x M38A1 "Nekaf" Jeep, 1 x DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and 1 x one-tonne trailer. The administration and supply group had 1 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck and 1 x one-tonne trailer. The kitchen group had 1 x YA-314 and 1 x one-tonne trailer. ¶ The vessel platoon comprised one command group, two riverboat groups (rvv) and one support group (ost). The command group had 1 x M38A1, 1 x YA-126, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and 1 x one-tonne trailer. The two riverboat groups each comprised one tugboat team (sleepb) and one bridging boat team (bbrb). The tugboat teams each had two 350-500 hp tugboats, two cargo barges and four ± one-tonne workboats powered by outboard motors. The bridging boat team had six bridging boats. The support group comprised one tugboat team and one transport team. The tugboat team had six 350-500 hp tugboats. The transport team had two 250-tonne cargo ships, two 500-tonne cargo ships and one tank raft (Rhino Ferry). ¶ The two mobile diver platoons each comprised a command group, two diver groups (dkr) and one underwater reconnaissance group (owv). The command groups each had 1 x M38A1 and one ¼-tonne trailer. The diver groups each had 2 x YA-314 and one M53 2½-tonne trailer, two ± one-tonne workboats with outboard motors, and diving equipment. The underwater reconnaissance groups each had 2 x YA-314 and one M53 2½-tonne trailer, two ± one-tonne workboats with outboard motors, and underwater reconnaissance diving equipment. They probably each comprised two underwater reconnaissance teams (see The Diver Platoon). ¶ The salvage platoon comprised one command group, one diver group (dkr), two salvage diver groups (berg dkr) and one support group (ost). The command group had 1 x M38A1, 1 x YA-126, 1 x ¼-tonne trailer and 1 x one-tonne trailer. The diver group had 2 x YA-314 three-tonne truck and one M53 2½-tonne trailer, and two ± one-tonne workboats with outboard motors. The two salvage diver groups together had 1 x YA-314 and 1 x one-tonne trailer and diving equipment. The support group had one salvage vessel, one auxiliary salvage vessel, four cargo barges and two small patrol boats. ¶ The maintenance platoon comprised one command group and one maintenance group. The command group had 1 x M38A1 and 1 x ¼-tonne trailer. The maintenance group had 1 x M38A1, 4 x YA-314 (one with compressor) and 4 x one-tonne trailer. || In 1978 personal armament comprised 9 x FN Browning Hi-Power pistol 9 mm and 237 x M1 Carbine .30 inch. By 1985 the carbines may have been replaced with UZI submachine guns 9 mm. 
 
Company staff strength: 3/5/14 (22). Vessel platoon strength: 1/22/63 (86). Mobile diver platoon strength: 1/4/30 (35). Salvage platoon strength: 1/9/33 (43). Maintenance platoon strength: 1/6/18 (25). Company strength: 8/50/188 (246).

901 Torpedo Company, subordinate to 460 Engineer Combat Group of National Territorial Command, was a mobilisable waterway engineer unit. Its name dates back to the nineteenth century, when underwater mines were called torpedoes.2 In wartime the company would perform various engineer operations on the inland waters, such as river bottom reconnaissance, underwater detection of materiel, removing obstacles in waterways, underwater destruction by explosives, and creating river barriers or obstructions; it would also provide military transport by water and assist in other waterway-related operations such as bridging, patrolling and disaster relief. The two riverboat groups of the vessel platoon were intended to operate together with the two mobile diver platoons, with one riverboat/diver formation operating north and one south of the major rivers (approximately Waal-Nieuwe Maas). The vessel platoon's support group was intended to operate together with the salvage platoon, which formation would operate from a central location. Some of the water craft listed above would be requisitioned; additional craft might be requisitioned, in particular for patrolling.  

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110, inv. nr. 1390, Memorandum 901 Torpedistencompagnie d.d. januari 1978. Ibid. Aanvullend memorandum 901 Torpedistencompagnie d.d. 13 februari 1979. Ibid., Plan-OTAS Torpedistencompagnie d.d. 25 juli 1979. These documents are not entirely accurate for 1985; company strength at least rose from 8/50/188 (246) in 1979 to 8/57/195 (260) in 1985.
2. Elands et al., 250 jaar, 41-43.

<


The Brigade Supply Company 1
De bevoorradingscompagnie pantser(infanterie)brigade (bevocie pa(inf)brig)


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One company staff, one supply platoon, one replacement holding platoon, two transport platoons (1-2), one mixed transport platoon (gem), one secondary field post office, and one burial group. ¶ The company staff comprised a command group with 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch, an administration and supply group with 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch, a maintenance group with 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch, a cashier group, and a kitchen group with 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch. ¶ The supply platoon comprised a command group, a Class I supply group, a Class III supply group and a Class V supply group, each supply group with 1 x M2 hmg .50 inch. ¶ The two transport platoons (1-2) each comprised a command group and two transport groups (1-2), each transport group with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. ¶ The mixed transport platoon comprised a command group, two transport groups (1-2) and one mixed transport group (gem) with 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm. || The company had the following vehicle types in use: ½-tonne Land Rover, ¾-tonne Land Rover, DAF YA-126 one-tonne truck, DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck, DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck, DAF YF-616 six-tonne 7,000 liter fuel tanker truck, DAF YAZ-2300 ten-tonne truck with loader crane (or possibly its predecessor, the DAF YA-616 VL six-tonne truck), DAF YB-616 six-tonne tow truck, DAF 66 YA light utility vehicle. The company had 15 x M72 LAW 66 mm, personal armament consisted mainly of UZI submachine guns 9 mm.

Company strength: 8/29/288 (325).

Each armoured (infantry) brigade had one company of this type. This is the organisation of 11 Brigade Supply Company of 11 Armoured Infantry Brigade for 1985. Given the large difference between peace and war strength (150 versus 325 men) some subunits were probably permanently on Short Leave in peacetime, for instance one transport platoon and one of the two transport groups of the mixed transport platoon.2  The supply companies of the three armoured brigades had a somewhat different organisation: in 1985 12 Brigade Supply Company of 13 Armoured Brigade had one rather than two transport platoons, comprising a command group and three transport groups, whilst its mixed supply platoon comprised a command group, a transport group, a heavy transport group and a fuel tanker group.3

During operations the company would deploy brigade distribution points for Class I and III goods. Regarding Class V goods the company's role was limited to holding in reserve part of the brigade's basic load of mortar and artillery ammunition (120 and 155 mm respectively).4 This reserve, about one hundred and sixty tons, was kept on wheels in the transport platoon(s). It would only be used in emergencies, and only on order of the brigade commander. In such case a mobile distribution point would be formed, from which the ammunition would be delivered to the combat units.5 Class II and IV supplies were handled by the brigade repair company.

In logistic terms the replacement of combat casualties was also a supply matter, which task was handled for the brigade by the replacement holding platoon. Likewise human body disposal was a task for the burial group, which would set up a collection point for this purpose. Another task to be handled by the company was the collection of enemy prisoners of war.6 The secondary field post office likely handled all field post for the brigade.

_________________________________________________
 
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 1415, Reorg 11 Bevocie d.d. 2 april 1979. Ibid., inv. nr. 328, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) bevoorradingscompagnieën pantser(infanterie)brigade, 1978-1979. Bremer, 13 Bevocompagnie, 28-29. Hooiveld, 13de Bevoorradingscompagnie, 4-6. Janssen Lok, 11 Brigade Bevoorradingscompagnie, 8-9. 
2. In 1985 11 Brigade Supply Company would, on mobilisation, receive an additional sixty-eight men from the general pool of mobilisable reserves (vrij-indeelbaar bestand); these would have fulfilled their active-duty period in relevant functions up to three and a half years prior to mobilisation. NIMH 205A/10, Aflossing van mobilisabele eenheden en -aanvullingen d.d. 11 november 1983.
3. The organisation type numbers to which some of the NL-HaNA documents mentioned in footnote 1 pertain are the same as those listed for 11 and 12 Brigade Supply Company in the official Royal Army orders of battle for 1985 (NIMH 430, inv. nrs. 54, 55). Nonetheless the description of these organisation types may not be entirely accurate for 1985, as the aforementioned NL-HaNA documents contain only parts of their tables of organisation and equipment. These parts had to be combined with the other sources mentioned in footnote 1. In addition to the differences between the supply companies of armoured and armoured infantry brigades the gradual influx of new vehicle types may also have caused differences in organisation. See also Corps Logistical Command, Reorganisations 1984-1990s.
4. Class I: food, water; Class III: petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL), paint and chemicals; Class V: ammunition, explosives. Roos, Van marketentster, 356. Roozenbeek, In dienst, 122.
5. The other part of the brigade's basic load of ammunition (organieke munitieuitrusting, OMU) was carried by the combat units. These would normally pick up their ammunition from the ammunition supply points in the Corps Rear Area. This was far from ideal, and as of 1988 the brigade supply companies would handle all ammunition supplies through a brigade ammunition supply point. See also Corps Logistical Command, Reorganisations 1984-1990s. In total the brigade's basic load was meant to cover five days of combat. Roos, Van marketentster, 327. Roozenbeek, In dienst, 169-170. Bremer, loc. cit.  Hooiveld, loc. cit.  Janssen Lok, loc. cit.
6. Hooiveld, loc. cit. Janssen Lok, loc. cit.

<


The Brigade Repair Company 1
De herstelcompagnie pantser(infanterie)brigade (hrstcie pa(inf)brig)

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One company staff; one workshop staff platoon (wkplst); one tracked vehicle repair platoon (rvtgn); one wheeled vehicle repair platoon (wvtgn); one gunnery, weaponry and instruments/electronic materiel repair platoon (gwi/eltromat); and one supply platoon. ¶ The company staff comprised a command group with 2 x DAF 66 YA light utility vehicle; an administration and supply group with 3 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck, 2 x one-tonne trailer (water) and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm; a maintenance group with 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer; and a kitchen group with 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x trailer (field kitchen). ¶ The workshop staff platoon comprised a command group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm; an operations office (bdf) with 1 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi, 1 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne truck and 1 x one-tonne trailer; an inspection group (insp) with 1 x DAF 66 YA and 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover; a workshop store group (wkplmag) with 2 x YA-4440, 2 x DAF YT-514 five-tonne tractor with ten-tonne trailer and 1 x forklift truck; and a towing group (takel) with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 3 x DAF YB-616 six-tonne tow truck, 2 x DAF YT-616 tractor with twenty-three-tonne trailer and 1 x Leopard Bergepanzer 2 Armoured Recovery Vehicle (with 2 x gpmg 7.62 mm). ¶ The tracked vehicle repair platoon comprised a command group with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm; a Leopard repair group (leop) with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and 1 x YA-4440; a YPR repair group (YPR) with 1 x YA-4440; a Leopard/YPR repair group (leop/YPR) with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and 1 x YA-4440; and a various tracked vehicles repair group (div) with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and 1 x YA-4440. ¶ The wheeled vehicle repair platoon comprised a command group with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm; an auxiliary workshop group (hlpwkpl) with 2 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and 2 x YA-4440; and four wheeled vehicle repair groups with 2 x YA-4440 each. ¶ The gunnery, weaponry and instruments/electronic materiel repair platoon comprised a command group with 1 x DAF 66 YA and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm; a gunnery repair group (gt) with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 2 x YA-314 and 2 x one-tonne trailer; a PRTL repair group (PRTL) with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 3 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (generator); a small arms repair group (drbrwpn) with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 1 x YA-314 and 1 x one-tonne trailer; an instrument repair group (instrm) with 3 x YA-314 and 3 x one-tonne trailer; and an electronic materiel repair group (eltromat) with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover, 3 x YA-314, 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (generator). ¶ The supply platoon comprised a command group with 1 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi and 1 x FN MAG gpmg 7.62 mm; a registration group (rgs) with 1 x YA-314 and 1 x one-tonne trailer; a storage group (mag) with 11 x YA-314, 11 x one-tonne trailer and 1 x DAF YT-514 five-tonne tractor with ten-tonne trailer; and a transport group (afv) with 1 x YA-4440. || The company had 15 x M72 LAW 66 mm, personal armament consisted mainly of UZI submachine guns 9 mm.

Company staff strength: 3/8/26 (37). Workshop staff platoon strenght: 1/9/26 (36). Tracked vehicle repair platoon strength: 1/5/38 (44). Wheeled vehicle repair platoon strength: 1/7/42 (50). Gunnery, weaponry and instruments/electronic materiel platoon strength: 1/13/37 (51). Supply platoon strength: -/7/18 (25). Company strength:  7/49/187 (243).

Each armoured (infantry) brigade had one company of this type. This is the wartime organisation of 41 Brigade Repair Company for the period of June 1980 to September 1985.2 In peacetime this company had a sizeable detachment at Hohne (GE) (4/22/88 (114)) which would rejoin the company on mobilisation. Like all active-duty brigade repair companies its repair platoons each had one to three supplementary repair groups in peacetime, in addition to one or two small peacetime units at company level. In wartime their personnel would go to other (repair) units, predominantly in Corps Logistic Command. The organisation of the vehicle repair platoons differed slightly between companies because of different vehicle types being in use (e.g. Centurion versus Leopard and YPR-765 versus YP-408).

Apart from providing direct repair and maintenance support to the units of its brigade, the brigade repair company also handled Class II and Class IV supplies for these units through its supply platoon.3

_________________________________________________
   
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 295, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) 11 Hrstcie, 1978-1979. Ibid., inv. nr. 308, OTAS 13 Hrstcie, 1979. Ibid., inv. nr. 312, OTAS 41 Hrstcie, 1978, 1980. Ibid., OTAS 43 Hrstcie, 1979. Bremer, 42 Brigadeherstelcompagnie, 28-30. See also Van der Laan, Het functioneren, 571-574. 
2. Compare the company's unit type number in NIMH 430, inv. nr. 54 (Slagorde KL stand 1 juli 1985) and NL-HaNA 2.10.110 inv. nr. 312, OTAS 41 Hrstcie, 1980.
3. Class II: items included in a unit's Table of Organisation and Equipment (OTAS) such as weapons, vehicles, tools, spare parts and individual equipment including clothing. Class IV: items a unit needs to perform a specific task but not falling under Class II, for instance construction materials or additional vehicles and weapons. Roos, Van marketentster, 356. Roozenbeek, In dienst, 122.

<


The Brigade Medical Company 1
De brigade geneeskundige compagnie (briggnkcie)


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One company staff; one collection point platoon (vzpl); one field dressing station platoon (vbpl); and one ambulance platoon (zau). ¶ The company staff comprised a command group with 2 x DAF 66 YA light utility vehicle, 1 x DAF YA-4440 four-tonne truck and one motorcycle; an administration and supply group with 1 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (water); a maintenance group with 2 x YA-4440; a distribution point group with 4 x YA-4440; a chaplain service group with 2 x ¾-tonne Land Rover; and a kitchen group with 3 x YA-4440, 1 x one-tonne trailer (water) and probably one mobile field kitchen. ¶ The collection point platoon comprised a command group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover; and three collection point groups (1-2-3) with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover, 2 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (water) each. ¶ The field dressing station platoon comprised a command group, two field dressing station groups (1-2) with 1 x DAF 66 YA, 3 x YA-4440 and 1 x one-tonne trailer (water) each; and one specialist group (spec) with 1 x DAF YA-314 three-tonne water tanker truck, 6 x YA-4440 and 1 x Volkswagen Transporter Combi. ¶ The ambulance group comprised one command group with 1 x ¾-tonne Land Rover and two motorcycles; and two ambulance groups (1-2) with 1 x ½-tonne Land Rover and 10 x ¾-tonne Land Rover ambulance each. Personal armament consisted mainly of FN Browning Hi-Power pistols 9 mm and UZI submachine guns 9 mm.

Company strength: 19/21/144/2 (186).

Each armoured (infantry) brigade had one company of this type. Given the difference between peacetime and wartime strength (148 versus 186 men) some subunits were probably on Short Leave or otherwise mobilisable, for instance a collection point group, a field dressing station group and an ambulance group.

The company's field dressing station platoon provided the brigade's second-echelon medical treatment capacity, deploying a field dressing station in the rear of the brigade during operations. There, wounded personnel would receive such medical treatment as to prepare them for either further evacuation (to a transit hospital in the Corps Rear Area) or a return to their unit. The necessary surgical capacity was provided by the specialist group. One field dressing station group would be held in reserve to enable (tactical) relocation of the station. The collection point groups would act as starting points for evacuation chains close behind the front line, or as intermediate stations between battalion first aid stations and the field dressing station; they could also be used to reinforce or replace a battalion first aid station or to assist the field dressing station during (tactical) relocation. The ambulance platoon would transport wounded personnel from collection points and battalion first aid stations to the field dressing station, provide messenger services between the company's subunits, and transport medical supplies to the brigade's first-echelon medical units (e.g. the medical platoon of an armoured infantry battalion). The distribution of medical goods throughout the brigade was handled by the company staff's distribution group.

During exercises brigade medical companies frequently used alternative unit organisations, for instance with the collection point platoon and the ambulance platoon reorganised into two mixed platoons.2 From 1988 the brigade medical companies adopted a new organisation which, amongst other things, no longer longer incorporated surgical capacity and had twenty-four rather than twenty ambulances.3

_________________________________________________
 
1. NL-HaNA 2.13.110 inv. nr. 350, organisatietabellen en autorisatiestaten (OTAS) briggnkcie, 1978. Mohr, Quo vadis, 437-439. The data regarding vehicles and armament comes from the aforementioned NL-HaNA document from 1978, which means that it is probably not entirely accurate for 1985; between 1978 and 1985 this organisation type's OTAS was altered once (compare the organisation type number with NIMH 430, inv. nr. 54 (Slagorde KL stand 1 juli 1985)). A comparison between the data provided in the article by Mohr and the 1978 OTAS for instance suggests that by 1983 the DAF 66 YA vehicles were replaced with Land Rovers. 
2. Mohr, op. cit., 440-444, and subsequent discussion in Militaire Spectator nr. 3, 1984, 133-143
3. The new organisation is described in more detail in Feijen, Herstructurering, 310. See also 102 Medical Group, Reorganisation 1988-1992.

<


Mixed Battalions and Company Teams 1
Gemengde bataljons en teamverbanden
During operations battalion and company organisations within the armoured (infantry) brigades would usually be broken up to form combined-arms battle groups tailored to specific missions.2 Tank battalions and armoured infantry battalions would detach or exchange tank squadrons and armoured infantry companies, resulting in either reinforced or mixed battalions that were characterised as "tank-heavy", "armoured infantry-heavy" or "balanced". Within these battalions, tank squadrons and armoured infantry companies would subsequently detach or exchange platoons to form company-sized combat teams, the main components of which were tank platoons, armoured infantry platoons and armoured antitank platoons. Company teams (shortly called "teams" in the Royal Army) could be complemented by forward observer groups from the brigade's field artillery battalion and armoured engineer groups from the brigade's armoured engineer company.

After a new concept of operations for 1 (NL) Corps came info effect in July 1985, a preliminary version of a new tactical doctrine (gevechtshandleiding) followed in November of that year.3 The new doctrine formalised the modus operandi described above, recognising that terrain and expected enemy tactics would require battalions to fight in mixed order most of the time. The mixed or reinforced battalion and the company team became the key combat formations of the brigade. It was found that company teams, once formed, should be kept together as much as possible, and by 1987 basic brigade-level order of battle models had been developed which were built from interchangeable company teams that were, in principle, fixed. Each company team would typically comprise four platoons and the organic company or squadron staff. To illustrate, the chart below shows the basic mixed order of battle model for an armoured brigade, applied to 41 Armoured Brigade (showing only those units directly involved):

teamst (eskst)mrpel (3x)teamst (eskst)SsvcieSsvcie43 Tkbat41 PabrigpainfpelSsvcietkpel (3x)Ateam (Aesk)Bteam (Besk-43 Tkbat)atpelpainfpeltkpel (3x)Cteam (Cesk)teamst (eskst)atpelpainfpelpainfpeltkpel (3x)teamst (eskst)Cteam (Cesk)Ateam (Acie-42 Painfbat)painfpelpainfpel41 Tkbattkpel (2x)painfpelPaostcieteamst (ciest)tkpel (3x)atpeltkpel (2x)teamst (eskst)Bteam (Bcie-42 Painfbat)Cteam (Ccie)tkpel (3x)Ststcie 41 PabrigBteam (Besk)teamst (ciest)ciestAteam (Aesk-41 Tkbat)painfpeltkpel (3x)tkpel (2x)teamst (ciest)painfpel42 Painfbatteamst (eskst)

In this model 42 Armoured Infantry Battalion has detached A Company to 41 Tank Battalion (A-42) and B Company to 43 Tank Battalion (B-42), receiving A Squadron from 41 Tank Battalion (A-41) and B Squadron from 43 Tank Battalion (B-43) in return. Subsequently each armoured infantry company has detached an armoured infantry platoon to each of the two tank squadrons now part of the mixed battalion, whilst these two tank squadrons have each detached a tank platoon to the armoured infantry company. The armoured combat support company of 42 Armoured Infantry Battalion (Paost) has detached its three (armoured) antitank platoons to the three armoured infantry companies (of which two now detached), retaining only its three mortar platoons. Apart from this mortar support the brigade now has three identical mixed battalions, each with three company teams: two teams with three tank platoons and one armoured infantry platoon each; and one team with two tank platoons, one armoured infantry platoon and one antitank platoon. 

By 1989 combined-arms battalion formations were no longer referred to as "mixed" or "reinforced", but as "manoeuvre battalions". The composition of manoeuvre battalions and company teams was now indicated by a three-digit code, representing the number of, subsequently, tank, armoured infantry, and antitank platoons. In the model above 41 Armoured Brigade thus has three type 831 manoeuvre battalions, each with two type 310 teams and one type 211 team.

For the armoured infantry brigades the possibilities to form manoeuvre battalions and company teams were greatly increased between 1987 and 1989. The introduction of a new tank battalion type for the armoured infantry brigades (1986-1987) added two platoons worth of main battle tanks to these units, whilst the transition of the remaining eight DAF YP-408 equipped armoured infantry battalions to the YPR-765 armoured infantry fighting vehicle (1987-1989) meant that these battalions now each had three antitank platoons (each with 4 x YPR-765 PRAT) rather than one (with 6 x YP-408 AT).4 These enhancements enabled a basic order of battle model of two type 484 manoeuvre battalions, each with four type 121 teams; and one type 620 manoeuvre battalion with two type 310 teams. To meet different tactical situations four other models could be used.5

For the Royal Army the adoption of non-organic combined-arms formations as the basic combat units of its main fighting force was not without challenges. With conscript soldiers and sub-officers serving fourteen and sixteen months respectively, training company teams to operate as effective, integrated units was no simple matter. In wartime the addition and incorporation of mobilisable units and subunits would be at least as challenging, and certainly time-consuming. Apart from certain logistical bottlenecks, the greatest challenge however lay with the captains and their small staffs commanding the company teams: they had to be thoroughly familiar with the equipment and operational procedures of all participating unit types. Moreover, company teams were fixed only in principle and their commanders would need to know how to operate effectively with different types of company teams.6
 
To conclude, the chart below again shows 41 Armoured Brigade in basic mixed order of battle, now including its organic engineer, artillery and logistic support. 42 Armoured Infantry Battalion demonstrates further possible augmentation of its company teams, each having an armoured engineer group from 41 Armoured Engineer Company and a forward observation group from 41 Field Artillery Battalion attached.

41 Briggnkcie41 Hrstcie41 Bevocie41 Afdva41 Pagncievwwngpvwwngpvwwngppagngppagngppagngpteamst (eskst)mrpel (3x)teamst (eskst)SsvcieSsvcie43 TkbatpainfpelSsvcietkpel (3x)Ateam (Aesk)Bteam (Besk-43 Tkbat)atpelpainfpeltkpel (3x)Cteam (Cesk)teamst (eskst)atpelpainfpelpainfpeltkpel (3x)teamst (eskst)Cteam (Cesk)Ateam (Acie-42 Painfbat)painfpelpainfpel41 Tkbattkpel (2x)painfpelPaostcieteamst (ciest)tkpel (3x)atpeltkpel (2x)teamst (eskst)Bteam (Bcie-42 Painfbat)Cteam (Ccie)tkpel (3x)Ststcie 41 PabrigBteam (Besk)teamst (ciest)ciestAteam (Aesk-41 Tkbat)painfpeltkpel (3x)tkpel (2x)teamst (ciest)painfpel42 Painfbatteamst (eskst)41 Pabrig

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1. VS 44-32, IV-6. Elands, Van Gils en Schoenmaker, Geschiedenis 1 Divisie, 230, 234, 239-240. Felius, Einde oefening, 188-189. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, Met de blik, 384. Elands et al., 250 jaar, 268. Isby and Kamps, Armies, 327. Egter van Wissekerke, Het vaste team, 155-167, and subsequent discussion in Militaire Spectator nr. 7, 1987, 316-318.
2. The practice of forming combined-arms task groups is already described in the Royal Army's tactical doctrine of 1968. VS 2-1386, 28-29, 68, 166, 258, 307.
3. VR 2-1386. This document superseded the tactical doctrine of 1968 mentioned in footnote 2; the definitive version of VS 2-1386 was issued in December 1988. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 382. For the new concept of operations (Operatieplan nr. 1), see 1 (NL) Corps, Operational Role
4. It appears that the enlargement of the tank battalions in the armoured infantry brigades may have been partly motivated by the fact that the number of TOW atgm systems originally found to be required by a 1978 study, three hundred seventy-five, was not met due to spending cuts initiated in 1981.The total number of TOW systems eventually acquired by the Royal Army wasthree hundred and thirty (including war/technical reserves). NL-HaNA 2.13.182, inv. nr. 682, Aantekening DMKL "Het wapensysteem Leopard 1V" d.d. 28 augustus 1986, 1-3. HTK 1984-1985, kamerstuknr. 18600 X ondernr. 56, 4. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 350, 389. Hoffenaar en Schoenmaker, in op. cit., 389, report three hundred and fifty TOW systems acquired.
5. See Egter van Wissekerke, op. cit., 159-161.
6. Problems and challenges regarding command, training and logistic support are described in more detail in Egter van Wissekerke, op. cit., 164-167. Regarding command, Egter van Wissekerke notes that structural, adequate training for team commanders was not yet in place. Ibid., 164. Lieutenant-colonel Blomjous, commander of 101 Tank Battalion, had similar findings during a field exercise in 1986. Elands, Van Gils en Schoenmaker, op. cit., 239-240. As a juxtaposition it is interesting to quote Isby and Kamps on battle groups and combat teams in the British Army: "The British believe they can make such two-level combined arms integration [at battalion and company level, HB] work because of the training and experience of their commanders. British mechanised infantry and tank squadron commanders are senior majors, rather than captains as in the U.S. Army [and the Royal Army, HB]. They can be expected to have the knowledge and experience to use combined-arms forces effectively." Isby and Kamps, op. cit., 244. See also the recommendations in Egter van Wissekerkeop. cit., 167.

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